Researchers Database

mashiko toshihiro

    SurgicalNeurology Professor
Last Updated :2023/05/31

Researcher Information


  • medical doctor(Jichi Medical University)


J-Global ID

Research Interests

  • 手術シミュレーション   brain tumor;streotactic radiosurgery   

Research Areas

  • Life sciences / Neurosurgery

Academic & Professional Experience

  • 2010  - 自治医科大学准教授
  • 2001  - Lecture, Department of Suigical Neurology, Jichi
  • Medical School
  • Jichi Medical UniversityAssociate Professor


  •        - 1985  Jichi Medical University  医学部
  •        - 1985  Jichi Medical University  Faculty of Medicine

Association Memberships

  • 日本神経学会   日本解剖学会   日本臨床電子顕微鏡学会   日本脳神経外科学会   

Published Papers

  • Toshihiro Mashiko, Takehiko Konno, Naoki Kaneko, Eiju Watanabe
    WORLD NEUROSURGERY 84 (2) 585 - 590 1878-8750 2015/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
    A hollow brain model was created using soft urethane. A tube passing through the hollow was attached for use as a water inlet and manometer. Water sufficient in quantity to realize the intended initial pressure was infused through the tube. The brain model was retracted with a brain spatula and the surgical corridor was opened. By measuring local force with a sensor set on the brain spatula, the model could be used for training in brain retraction. At the same time, the water column of the manometer was measured and the relationship with the force of the brain spatula was investigated. A positive correlation between the water column and local force was confirmed. This indicated that it was possible to use this model without a force sensor for the same training using water column measurements.
  • Shunt Passer Clamp : A New Device to Prevent Rotation of CSF-Shunt Passer
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    No Shinkei Geka 43 (4) 317 - 322 2015/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Toshihiro Mashiko, Keisuke Otani, Ryutaro Kawano, Takehiko Konno, Naoki Kaneko, Yumiko Ito, Eiju Watanabe
    WORLD NEUROSURGERY 83 (3) 351 - 361 1878-8750 2015/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
    OBJECTIVE: We developed a method for fabricating a three-dimensional hollow and elastic aneurysm model useful for surgical simulation and surgical training. In this article, we explain the hollow elastic model prototyping method and report on the effects of applying it to presurgical simulation and surgical training. METHODS: A three-dimensional printer using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene as a modeling material was used to produce a vessel model. The prototype was then coated with liquid silicone. After the silicone had hardened, the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene was melted with xylene and removed, leaving an outer layer as a hollow elastic model. RESULTS: Simulations using the hollow elastic model were performed in 12 patients. In all patients, the clipping proceeded as scheduled. The surgeon's postoperative assessment was favorable in all cases. This method enables easy fabrication at low cost. CONCLUSION: Simulation using the hollow elastic model is thought to be useful for understanding of three-dimensional aneurysm structure.
  • Computer-assisted Neurosurgery
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    Journal of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan 20 (1) 12 - 17 2015/03 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Pre-surgical Simulation of Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Using 3D-models
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    No Shinkei Geka 43 (1) 41 - 49 2015/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • 3Dプリンターによるデジタルものづくり入門~その④:動脈瘤・血管モデルと脳モデル~.
    益子 敏弘
    脳神経外科速報 24 (1) 90 - 94 2014/01 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • M Mato, S Ookawara, T Mashiko, A Sakamoto, TK Mato, N Maeda, T Kodama
    ANATOMICAL RECORD 256 (2) 165 - 176 0003-276X 1999/10 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    According to recent knowledge, apolipoprotein E (apo E) plays a significant role in the homeostasis of intracellular cholesterol level in various tissues. Apo E deficient mice develop hyperlipidemia, and suffer from atherosclerosis in extracerebral blood vessels and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Furthermore, Walker et al. (Am. J. Path., 1997;151:1371-1377) demonstrated cerebral xanthomas of various sizes in the brain of apo E deficient mice. In the present study, it is illustrated that in the homozygous apo E deficient mice of advancing age, a great number of foamy macrophages extravasate from microvessels in thalamus and fimbria hippocampi, and scatter in the perivascular regions and migrate toward the ependyma, fimbria hippocampi, hippocampus, and thalamus. Here, it must be pointed out that under hyperlipidemia, although foamy macrophages made dusters in the perivascular region, the cerebral microvessels did not develop atherosclerosis. On the other hand, in the other cerebral regions such as cerebral cortex, caudoputamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, macrophages did not appear and microvessels retained normal shapes, but the fluorescent granular perithelial (in short, FGP) cells accompanied by these vessels contained a certain amount of lipids. That is, in the cerebral cortex and caudoputamen, lipid components are detected in FGP cells and microglia, while in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, they are mainly localized in astrocytes. The reason why the astrocytes in such defined regions contain, specifically, a high quantity of lipid components remains unsettled. Axonal degenerations are often represented in thalamus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. On the other hand, in the specimens of Wild-type mice, lipid components were observed only in FGP cells, and the vascular architecture took a normal profile. Any lipid laden macrophages and the axonal degenerations could not be detected through the cerebral parenchyma. Furthermore, it is also a noticeable finding that immunohistochemically, the FGP cells express a positive reaction against the antibody of apo E in the Wild-type mice, but those of homozygous apo E deficient mice are immunonegative. FGP cells are not only provided with the scavenger receptor, but also contribute to the lipid metabolism in the brain. Anat Rec 256:165-176, 1999. (C) 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Toshihiro Mashiko, Shigeo Ookawara, Masao Mato
    Brain and Nerve 51 (10) 871 - 878 0006-8969 1999 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    In order to clarify the sequential changes of the morphology of vascular cells and FGP cells under cerebral ischemia, 32 male Wistar rats were employed. The FGP cells in the present paper are distributed along cerebral microvessels, and markedly potent in the uptake capacity for endo-and exogenous substances under the physiological and pathological conditions. Under the anesthesia of pentobarbital, experimental animals suffered from cerebral ischemia were produced by (1) occlusion of bilateral vertebral arteries. (2) unilateral ligation of common carotid artery accompanied with occlusion of vertebral arteries and (3) temporary clipping of bilateral common carotid arteries accompanied with occlusion of vertebral arteries. On 1 to 14 days after the treatments mentioned above, the cerebral cortices of animals were examined with the electron microscope with paying special attention to morphological changes of FGP cells. From the observation, it is confirmed that : ( 1 ) after occlusion of vertebral arteries ( first group of experimental animals), the FGP cells become edematous without any severe damage of cerebral neurons through 2 weeks. : (2) In case of the unilateral ligation of common carotid artery ( second group of experimental animals ), the FGP cells and neurons tend to degenerate at the ligated side on 14 days, but at the opposit side, the considerable vacuolation and swelling of the FGP cells are evident, without accompanying with any degeneration of neurons and FGP cells, and : (3) In the reflow experiment (third group of experimental animals), the neurons are not affective and the FGP cells show some degenerative changes on 7 days, but most of them recovered on 14 days. From these observations, it may be concluded that the morphological changes of FGP cells run parallel with the change of microenvironment surrounding neurons, and the FGP cells, in addition to astrocytes, are reliable morphological markers of cerebral edema.
  • 実験的脳虚血における脳細血管およびFGP細胞(蛍光性顆粒周囲細胞;Mato細胞)の形態学的変化に関する電子顕微鏡的研究(共著)
    脳と神経 51 (10) 871 - 878 1999 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Masasuke Araki, Tetsuo Nonaka, Kimio Akagawa, Hiroshi Kimura, Toshihiro Mashiko
    Neuroscience Research 20 (1) 57 - 69 0168-0102 1994 [Not refereed][Not invited]
    The pineal gland in mammals is an endocrine organ and generally does not exhibit neuronal characteristics. However, it is known that under culture conditions, cells from newborn rat pineals express properties characteristic of photoreceptors. Here, we studied the potential of rat pineal cells to differentiate into neuronal cell types using different neural markers. Three phenotype markers characteristic of nerve cells, i.e., intense GABA, neuron-specific antigen (HPC-1) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunoreactivities, were detected in the pineal culture of newborn rats. Expression of the respective neuronal phenotypes appears to be controlled by different mechanisms in the normal culture medium containing 5.4 mM KCl, numerous cells were stained intensely with anti-GABA antiserum, whereas only a few were stained intensely either with HPC-1 or MAP2 antibody. In a culture medium with a high concentration of KCl (35 mM), which may induce depolarization of nerve cells, numerous cells became strongly positive for HPC-1 or MAP2 both the cell bodies and the neuritic fibers were stained positively. Since cells intensely immunoreactive to GABA, HPC-1 or MAP2 were not found in intact pineals of the rat, the present results indicate that the neuronal potency of the rat pineal cells is expressed only in vitro and is suppressed in vivo, and that the potency is lost during postnatal development. Norepinephrine at 1 μM, which suppresses differentiation of rhodopsin immunoreactive cells, was ineffective in inducing phenotypic expression of neuronal properties in the present system, indicating that the mechanism of suppression of neuronal properties in the intact pineal may be different from the one for photoreceptors. © 1994.
  • Ultrastructural Study of hypothalamic hamartoma in a child.
    J. Clin. Electron Microscopy 25 (5) 602  1992 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • A case of immature teratoma diagnosed as germinoma by biopsy
    J. Clin Electron Microscopy 23 (5) 788  1990 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Prognosis of Chronic subdural Hematoma in aged patients
    Jichi Medical School Journal 11 175  1988 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • 慢性硬膜下血腫の臨床的検討
    自治医科大学紀要 11 175  1988 [Not refereed][Not invited]

Conference Activities & Talks

  • Toward the extreme reality in the custom-built 3D surgical simulator  [Not invited]
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    24th Conference on Neurosurgical Techniques and Tools(CNTT)  2015/03
  • Clinical use of 3D-printers-our two years' experience-  [Not invited]
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    The 73rd Annual Meeting of The Japan Neurosurgical Socity  2014/10
  • Simulation of Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping with 3-Dimensional Hollow Elastic Models  [Not invited]
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    23th Conference on Neurosurgical Techniques and Tools(CNTT)」  2014/04
  • Effectiveness of 3-dimentional models in bed side-learning  [Not invited]
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    The 119th Annual Meeting of the Tapanese Associatoin of Anatomists  2014/03
  • 3-dimensional hollow elastic models for simulation of cerebral aneurysm clipping  [Not invited]
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    The 72nd Annual Meeting of The Japan Neurosurgical Socity  2013/10
  • Simulation of Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping with 3-Dimensional Soft and Hollow Models  [Not invited]
    MASHIKO Toshihiro
    22th Conference on Neurosurgical Techniques and Tools(CNTT)  2013/04
  • 脳浮腫に伴う脳微小血管周囲細胞及び星状膠細胞の超微構造の変化  [Not invited]
    第40回日本神経学会総会  1999
  • 脳虚血時に於けるFGP細胞(Mato)に関する研究  [Not invited]
    第104回日本解剖学会全国学術集会  1999


  • Intraosseous meningiomaの一例:文献的考察とそのMRI診断
  • 巨大頚部硬膜外神経鞘腫の一例


  • Ultrastructural study on fluorescent granular perithelial cells and astrocytes under cerbral edema
    1999  [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Study of FGP cell(Mato)under cerbral ischemia
    1999  [Not refereed][Not invited]

Research Grants & Projects

  • 脳虚血と虚血耐性
    Date (from‐to) : 2003
  • Cerebral ischemia and ischemic tolerance
    0085 (Japanese Only)
    Date (from‐to) : 2003
  • 医学教育
  • medical engineering
  • 脳腫瘍の定位放射線治療
  • グリオーマの化学療法
  • 蛍光性顆粒周囲細胞(間藤細胞)
  • 立体模型による手術シミュレーション
  • streotactic radiosurgery
  • chemotherapy for brain tumor
  • medical engineering
  • fluorescent granular perithelial cell
  • Development of pineal gland

Copyright © MEDIA FUSION Co.,Ltd. All rights reserved.