Researchers Database

KURO-O Makoto

    DivisionofAnti-agingMedicine Professor
Last Updated :2021/12/07

Researcher Information

J-Global ID

Research Areas

  • Life sciences / Nephrology

Published Papers

  • Naoki Usui, Masahide Yoshida, Yuki Takayanagi, Naranbat Nasanbuyan, Ayumu Inutsuka, Hiroshi Kurosu, Hiroaki Mizukami, Yoshiyuki Mori, Makoto Kuro-O, Tatsushi Onaka
    Journal of neuroendocrinology e13026  2021/08 
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) modulates energy metabolism and neuroendocrine stress responses. FGF21 synthesis is increased after environmental or metabolic challenges. Detailed roles of FGF21 in the control of behavioural disturbances under stressful conditions remain to be clarified. Here, we examined the roles of FGF21 in the control of behavioural changes after social defeat stress in male rodents. Central administration of FGF21 increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cells expressing c-Fos protein, an activity marker of neurones, in the nucleus tractus solitarius and area postrema. Double in situ hybridisation showed that some catecholaminergic neurones in the dorsal medulla oblongata expressed β-Klotho, an essential co-receptor for FGF21, in male mice. Social defeat stress increased FGF21 concentrations in the plasma of male mice. FGF21-deficient male mice showed social avoidance in a social avoidance test with C57BL/6J mice (background strain of FGF21-deficient mice) and augmented immobility behaviour in a forced swimming test after social defeat stress. On the other hand, overexpression of FGF21 by adeno-associated virus vectors did not significantly change behaviours either in wild-type male mice or FGF21-deficient male mice. The present data are consistent with the view that endogenous FGF21, possibly during the developmental period, has an inhibitory action on stress-induced depression-like behaviour in male rodents.
  • Masaki Yoshioka, Keisei Kosaki, Masahiro Matsui, Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka, Makoto Kuro-o, Chie Saito, Kunihiro Yamagata, Seiji Maeda
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 0914-8779 2021/07
  • Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Asako Tsubouchi, Yutaka Miura, Kinya Seo, Takahiro Kuchimaru, Hirosaka Hayashi, Yoshitaka Iwazu, Marina Miura, Batpurev Battulga, Nobuhiko Ohno, Toru Hara, Rina Kunishige, Mamiko Masutani, Keita Negishi, Kazuomi Kario, Kazuhiko Kotani, Toshiyuki Yamada, Daisuke Nagata, Issei Komuro, Hiroshi Itoh, Hiroshi Kurosu, Masayuki Murata, Makoto Kuro-o
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 2021/06
  • Masaki Yoshioka, Keisei Kosaki, Masahiro Matsui, Kanako Takahashi, Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka, Makoto Kuro-O, Chie Saito, Kunihiro Yamagata, Seiji Maeda
    Physical therapy 2021/03 
    OBJECTIVE: Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior can contribute to decreased skeletal muscle strength, which is strongly associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the potential impact of replacing sedentary behavior with physical activity on skeletal muscle strength remains unclear in these patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and skeletal muscle strength in patients with CKD using an isotemporal substitution model to estimate the associations on replacing time from one behavior to another while keeping the total time and other behaviors fixed. METHODS: A total of 108 patients with CKD (mean age = 65 [SD = 9] y; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate = 57 [SD = 22] mL/min/1.73m2) participated in this cross-sectional analysis study. The time spent in sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. Handgrip strength, isometric knee extension strength, and 30-second chair stand test were used to measure skeletal muscle strength. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses (single-factor and partition models), the time spent in MVPA was beneficially associated with both isometric knee extension strength and 30-second chair stand test. Furthermore, the isotemporal substitution model found that replacing 10 minutes per day of sedentary behavior or light-intensity physical activity with equivalent MVPA time was beneficially associated with both isometric knee extension strength and 30-second chair stand test. CONCLUSIONS: Our cross-sectional findings indicate that MVPA time is beneficially associated with lower extremity muscle strength and that a slight increase in the MVPA time may contribute to maintaining skeletal muscle strength in patients with CKD. IMPACT: Increasing the time spent in MVPA (10 min/day) may be a feasible strategy in patients with CKD, who have a high prevalence of impaired physical function.
  • Masahiro Matsui, Keisei Kosaki, Koichiro Tanahashi, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Yosuke Osuka, Kiyoji Tanaka, Makoto Kuro-o, Seiji Maeda
    Experimental Gerontology 141 0531-5565 2020/11 
    © 2020 Elsevier Inc. Objective: Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) increase with advancing age and may lead to the development of cardiometabolic diseases via impaired lipid and glucose metabolism. While physical activity can reduce these risks of cardiometabolic dysfunction, it remains obscure whether circulation FGF21 levels are influenced by physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between daily physical activities and circulating FGF21 levels in middle-aged and older adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study with 110 middle-aged and 102 older adults, circulating (serum) FGF21 levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the time spent in light-intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. Results: Serum FGF21 levels in the older group (158 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in the middle-aged group (117 pg/mL). When we examined the joint association of age (middle-aged or older) and MVPA (lower or higher than the median) groups, serum FGF21 levels in the older and higher MVPA group (116 pg/mL) were significantly lower than those in the older and lower MVPA group (176 pg/mL). However, there was no difference in serum FGF21 levels between the lower and higher MVPA groups in the middle-aged group. In multivariable liner regression analysis, serum FGF21 levels were independently determined by MVPA time after adjusting for potential covariates in older adults (β = −0.209). Conclusions: These cross-sectional study findings indicate that the time spent in MVPA is an independent determinant of circulating FGF21 levels, and that an age-related increase in serum FGF21 levels may be attenuated by habitually performing MVPA. (250/250 words).
  • Masahiro Matsui, Keisei Kosaki, Koichiro Tanahashi, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Yosuke Osuka, Kiyoji Tanaka, Makoto Kuro-O, Seiji Maeda
    Experimental gerontology 141 111081 - 111081 2020/11 
    OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) increase with advancing age and may lead to the development of cardiometabolic diseases via impaired lipid and glucose metabolism. While physical activity can reduce these risks of cardiometabolic dysfunction, it remains obscure whether circulation FGF21 levels are influenced by physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between daily physical activities and circulating FGF21 levels in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study with 110 middle-aged and 102 older adults, circulating (serum) FGF21 levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the time spent in light-intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. RESULTS: Serum FGF21 levels in the older group (158 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in the middle-aged group (117 pg/mL). When we examined the joint association of age (middle-aged or older) and MVPA (lower or higher than the median) groups, serum FGF21 levels in the older and higher MVPA group (116 pg/mL) were significantly lower than those in the older and lower MVPA group (176 pg/mL). However, there was no difference in serum FGF21 levels between the lower and higher MVPA groups in the middle-aged group. In multivariable liner regression analysis, serum FGF21 levels were independently determined by MVPA time after adjusting for potential covariates in older adults (β = -0.209). CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional study findings indicate that the time spent in MVPA is an independent determinant of circulating FGF21 levels, and that an age-related increase in serum FGF21 levels may be attenuated by habitually performing MVPA. (250/250 words).
  • Qin Wang, Kenichi Ishizawa, Jinping Li, Wataru Fujii, Yoshikazu Nemoto, Osamu Yamazaki, Yoshifuru Tamura, Yutaka Miura, Xuedan Nie, Ryo Abe, Hiroko Segawa, Makoto Kuro-O, Shigeru Shibata
    Communications biology 3 (1) 575 - 575 2020/10 
    Although disturbed phosphate metabolism frequently accompanies chronic kidney disease (CKD), its causal role in CKD progression remains unclear. It is also not fully understood how excess salt induces organ damage. We here show that urinary phosphate-containing nanoparticles promote kidney injury in salt-sensitive hypertension. In Dahl salt-sensitive rats, salt loading resulted in a significant increase in urinary phosphate excretion without altering serum phosphate levels. An intestinal phosphate binder sucroferric oxyhydroxide attenuated renal inflammation and proteinuria in this model, along with the suppression of phosphaturia. Using cultured proximal tubule cells, we confirmed direct pathogenic roles of phosphate-containing nanoparticles in renal tubules. Finally, transcriptome analysis revealed a potential role of complement C1q in renal inflammation associated with altered phosphate metabolism. These data demonstrate that increased phosphate excretion promotes renal inflammation in salt-sensitive hypertension and suggest a role of disturbed phosphate metabolism in the pathophysiology of hypertensive kidney disease and high salt-induced kidney injury.
  • Ken-Ichi Akiyama, Yutaka Miura, Hirosaka Hayashi, Asuka Sakata, Yoshitaka Matsumura, Masaki Kojima, Ken Tsuchiya, Kosaku Nitta, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-O
    Kidney international 97 (4) 702 - 712 2020/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a hormone indispensable for maintaining phosphate homeostasis. In response to phosphate intake, FGF23 is secreted from osteocytes/osteoblasts and acts on the kidney to increase urinary phosphate excretion. However, the mechanism by which these cells sense phosphate intake remains elusive. Calciprotein particles are nanoparticles of calcium-phosphate precipitates bound to serum protein fetuin-A and are generated spontaneously in solution containing calcium, phosphate, and fetuin-A to be dispersed as colloids. In cultured osteoblastic cells, increase in either calcium or phosphate concentration in the medium induced FGF23 expression, which was dependent on calciprotein particle formation. When transition of calcium-phosphate precipitates from the amorphous phase to the crystalline phase was blocked by bisphosphonate, the calciprotein particle size was reduced and FGF23 expression was augmented, suggesting that small calciprotein particles containing amorphous calcium-phosphate precipitates function as a more potent FGF23 inducer than larger calciprotein particles containing crystalline calcium-phosphate precipitates. In mice, bolus phosphate administration by oral gavage transiently increased circulating calciprotein particle levels followed by a modest increase in FGF23 expression and serum FGF23 levels. However, continuous dietary phosphate load induced robust and persistent increase in circulating calciprotein particles and FGF23 levels. We confirmed by in vivo imaging that calciprotein particles injected intravenously extravasated into the bone marrow and were deposited on the inner surface of the bone, indicating that these particles have direct access to osteoblasts. Thus, we propose that osteoblasts induce FGF23 expression and secretion when they sense an increase in extracellular calciprotein particles following phosphate ingestion.
  • Steven S Welc, Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Makoto Kuro-O, Kyle A Thomas, James G Tidball
    Experimental physiology 105 (1) 132 - 147 2020/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does modulating the expression of Klotho affect myogenesis following acute injury of healthy, non-senescent muscle? What is the main finding and its importance? Klotho can accelerate muscle growth following acute injury of healthy, adult mice, which supports the possibility that increased delivery of Klotho could have therapeutic value for improving repair of damaged muscle. ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle injuries activate a complex programme of myogenesis that can restore normal muscle structure. We tested whether modulating the expression of klotho influenced the response of mouse muscles to acute injury. Our findings show that klotho expression in muscle declines at 3 days post-injury. That reduction in klotho expression coincided with elevated expression of targets of Wnt signalling (Ccnd1; Myc) and increased MyoD+ muscle cell numbers, reflecting the onset of myogenic cell differentiation. klotho expression subsequently increased at 7 days post-injury with elevated expression occurring primarily in inflammatory lesions, which was accompanied by reduced expression of Wnt target genes (Ccnd1: 91%; Myc: 96%). Introduction of a klotho transgene maintained high levels of klotho expression over the course of muscle repair and attenuated the increases in Ccnd1 and Myc expression that occurred at 3 days post-injury. Correspondingly, transgene expression reduced Wnt signalling in Pax7+ cells, reflected by reductions in Pax7+ cells expressing active β-catenin, and reduced the numbers of MyoD+ cells at 3 days post-injury. At 21 days post-injury, muscles in klotho transgenic mice showed increased Pax7+ and decreased myogenin+ cell densities and large increases in myofibre size. Likewise, treating myogenic cells in vitro with Klotho reduced Myod expression but did not affect Pax7 expression. Muscle inflammation was only slightly modulated by increased klotho expression, initially reducing the expression of M2-biased macrophage markers Cd163 and Cd206 at 3 days post-injury and later increasing the expression of pan-macrophage marker F480 and Cd68 at 21 days post-injury. Collectively, our study shows that Klotho modulates myogenesis and that increased expression accelerates muscle growth after injury.
  • Shogo Yamamoto, Daisuke Koyama, Ryo Igarashi, Takumi Maki, Hiroyuki Mizuno, Yusuke Furukawa, Makoto Kuro-O
    Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) 59 (3) 345 - 355 2020 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Objective To prolong the health expectancy, it is important to prevent age-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and cerebrovascular disease, which are major causes of a bedridden state. Early predictable biomarkers for these diseases are urgently required in the clinical setting. Three members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family - FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 - are designated as endocrine FGFs and play crucial roles in various metabolic processes. We tried to clarify the clinical utility of endocrine FGFs as biomarkers for age-related diseases in elderly patients. Methods We examined the serum endocrine FGF levels and analyzed their association with various clinical parameters in 73 outpatients >60 years old as a single-center cross-sectional study. Results In a multivariable linear regression analysis, FGF19 was associated with ALT, a history of cardiovascular disease, and medication with active vitamin D3. FGF21 was associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), triglyceride level, and hypertension. FGF23 was associated with the eGFR and the serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and TRACP5b. In addition, a receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed that the measurement of FGF21 and FGF23 was useful for detecting chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications, including cardiovascular disease and metabolic bone disorder. Conclusion The measurement of FGF21 and FGF23 may be useful for evaluating CKD and its complications. Using serum endocrine FGFs as biomarkers for age-related conditions may help prevent elderly patients from entering a bedridden state.
  • Kimihiko Nakamura, Yudai Nagata, Toshiya Hiroyoshi, Naohito Isoyama, Koki Fujikawa, Yutaka Miura, Hideyasu Matsuyama, Makoto Kuro-O
    Clinical and experimental nephrology 2019/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: Aggregation of solid-phase calcium-phosphate and fetuin-A form nanoparticles called calciprotein particles (CPP). Serum CPP levels are increased in CKD patients and correlated with vascular stiffness and calcification. In this study, we evaluated effects of lanthanum carbonate (LC) and calcium carbonate (CC) on serum CPP levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: Twenty-four (24) HD patients (50% men, age; 68 ± 12 years, dialysis period; 6.2 ± 4.8 years, Kt/v; 1.74 ± 0.34) were treated with CC during 0-8 weeks and then switched to LC during 9-16 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 8, 16 weeks. Serum CPP levels (TCPP) were measured by the gel-filtration method. Low-density CPP (LCPP) levels were determined by centrifuging the serum samples at 16,000 g for 2 h and measuring CPP levels in the supernatant. The difference between TCPP and LCPP was defined as the high-density CPP (HCPP) level. We evaluated association of TCPP, LCPP, and HCPP with serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), intact PTH, FGF23, Klotho, fetuin-A, aortic calcification index (ACI), LDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP. RESULTS: TCPP and LCPP levels were significantly decreased after switching CC to LC, whereas Ca and P levels were not changed. HCPP levels were below the lower limit quantification in all patients. The changes in P, Ca × P, LDL cholesterol, but not ACI and the changes in hs-CRP, were correlated with the change in TCPP levels. CONCLUSION: The TCPP levels were significantly decreased after switching CC to LC. Non-calcium-containing phosphate binders may be preferable for lowering CPP levels.
  • Toshihiro Nakano, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Yutaka Miura, Masahiro Matsui, Keisei Kosaki, Shoya Mori, Kunihiro Yamagata, Seiji Maeda, Takuya Kishi, Naoki Usui, Masahide Yoshida, Tatsushi Onaka, Hiroaki Mizukami, Ruri Kaneda, Kazunori Karasawa, Kosaku Nitta, Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-O
    Scientific reports 9 (1) 19247 - 19247 2019/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) start increasing in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) since early stages during the cause of disease progression. FGF21 is a liver-derived hormone that induces responses to stress through acting on hypothalamus to activate the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal endocrine axis. However, roles that FGF21 plays in pathophysiology of CKD remains elusive. Here we show in mice that FGF21 is required to survive CKD but responsible for blood pressure dysregulation. When introduced with CKD, Fgf21-/- mice died earlier than wild-type mice. Paradoxically, these Fgf21-/- CKD mice escaped several complications observed in wild-type mice, including augmentation of blood pressure elevating response and activation of the sympathetic nervous system during physical activity and increase in serum noradrenalin and corticosterone levels. Supplementation of FGF21 by administration of an FGF21-expressing adeno-associated virus vector recapitulated these complications in wild-type mice and restored the survival period in Fgf21-/- CKD mice. In CKD patients, high serum FGF21 levels are independently associated with decreased baroreceptor sensitivity. Thus, increased FGF21 in CKD can be viewed as a survival response at the sacrifice of blood pressure homeostasis.
  • José Alberto Navarro-García, Carmen Delgado, María Fernández-Velasco, Almudena Val-Blasco, Elena Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jennifer Aceves-Ripoll, Nieves Gómez-Hurtado, Teresa Bada-Bosch, Evangelina Mérida-Herrero, Eduardo Hernández, Manuel Praga, Rafael Salguero, Jorge Solís, Fernando Arribas, Juan F Delgado, Héctor Bueno, Makoto Kuro-O, Luis Miguel Ruilope, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 34 (11) 1864 - 1875 2019/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmia are common and onerous cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, especially those on dialysis. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 is a phosphate-regulating hormone whose levels dramatically increase as renal function declines. Beyond its role in phosphorus homeostasis, FGF-23 may elicit a direct effect on the heart. Whether FGF-23 modulates ventricular cardiac rhythm is unknown, prompting us to study its role on excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. METHODS: We examined FGF-23 in vitro actions on EC coupling in adult rat native ventricular cardiomyocytes using patch clamp and confocal microscopy and in vivo actions on cardiac rhythm using electrocardiogram. RESULTS: Compared with vehicle treatment, FGF-23 induced a significant decrease in rat cardiomyocyte contraction, L-type Ca2+ current, systolic Ca2+ transients and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load and SR Ca2+-adenosine triphosphatase 2a pump activity. FGF-23 induced pro-arrhythmogenic activity in vitro and in vivo as automatic cardiomyocyte extracontractions and premature ventricular contractions. Diastolic spontaneous Ca2+ leak (sparks and waves) was significantly increased by FGF-23 via the calmodulin kinase type II (CaMKII)-dependent pathway related to hyperphosphorylation of ryanodine receptors at the CaMKII site Ser2814. Both contraction dysfunction and spontaneous pro-arrhythmic Ca2+ events induced by FGF-23 were blocked by soluble Klotho (sKlotho). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that FGF-23 reduces contractility and enhances arrhythmogenicity through intracellular Ca2+ mishandling. Blocking its actions on the heart by improving sKlotho bioavailability may enhance cardiac function and reduce arrhythmic events frequently observed in ESRD.
  • Jun Nakazato, Satoshi Hoshide, Minoru Wake, Yutaka Miura, Makoto Kuro-O, Kazuomi Kario
    Journal of cardiology 74 (5) 428 - 435 2019/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: Calciprotein particles (CPPs) have been suggested to be associated with the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, and have also been established as a molecular marker for clinical outcome in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are several concerns with regard to conventional measurement of CPPs. We therefore developed a new CPP measurement system that can detect both smaller and lower-density CPPs. METHODS: We analyzed 71 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=29) and/or stable angina pectoris (AP, n=42) who did not have CKD of stage 4 or greater. CPP measurement was made using an infrared fluorescent bisphosphonate (OsteoSense, PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA, USA) and a gel filtration method. The coronary artery plaque was analyzed by gray-scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and integrated backscatter (IB)-IVUS. RESULTS: The median CPP level (interquartile range) was 40,953 (19,171-74,131) arbitrary units (AU). When we divided the CPP level into quintiles, the total and lipid plaque volume were incrementally higher with increasing quintile from lowest to highest (both p<0.02). After adjustment by age, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, which factors were correlated with the above-described plaque components, the top quintile of CPP (>86,751AU) had significantly higher total plaque (263mm3 vs. 161mm3; p=0.001) and lipid plaque volume (156mm3 vs. 89mm3; p<0.001) than the other quintiles. However, these associations were not found for the fibrous or calcified plaque volume. The CPP level was higher in the ACS group than the stable AP group (p=0.02), and the total and lipid plaque volume were also higher in the ACS group than the stable AP group (both p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that a high CPP level, as measured by the novel assay, is a surrogate marker for coronary atherosclerosis, especially in lipid-rich plaques, contributing to an increased risk of plaque vulnerability.
  • Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Kerstin Amann, Makoto Kuro-O, Andreas Pasch, Burkert Pieske, Ioana Alesutan
    Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 76 (11) 2077 - 2091 2019/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Medial vascular calcification has emerged as a putative key factor contributing to the excessive cardiovascular mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hyperphosphatemia is considered a decisive determinant of vascular calcification in CKD. A critical role in initiation and progression of vascular calcification during elevated phosphate conditions is attributed to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are able to change their phenotype into osteo-/chondroblasts-like cells. These transdifferentiated VSMCs actively promote calcification in the medial layer of the arteries by producing a local pro-calcifying environment as well as nidus sites for precipitation of calcium and phosphate and growth of calcium phosphate crystals. Elevated extracellular phosphate induces osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs through complex intracellular signaling pathways, which are still incompletely understood. The present review addresses critical intracellular pathways controlling osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and, thus, vascular calcification during hyperphosphatemia. Elucidating these pathways holds a significant promise to open novel therapeutic opportunities counteracting the progression of vascular calcification in CKD.
  • Lectícia B Jorge, Fernanda O Coelho, Talita R Sanches, Denise M A C Malheiros, Leandro Ezaquiel de Souza, Fernando Dos Santos, Larissa de Sá Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Maria Irigoyen, Makoto Kuro-O, Lucia Andrade
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 316 (3) F438-F448  2019/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Sepsis-induced organ failure is characterized by a massive inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in approximately half of patients in septic shock, and the mortality associated with sepsis-induced AKI is unacceptably high. Klotho is a protein expressed by renal cells and has anti-senescence properties. Klotho has also been shown to protect the kidneys in ischemia-reperfusion injury and to have antioxidant properties. To analyze the role of Klotho in sepsis-related organ dysfunction and AKI, we used a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in heterozygous Klotho-haploinsufficient mice and their wild-type littermates (CLP- Kl/+ and CLP-WT mice, respectively). In comparison with the CLP-WT mice, CLP- Kl/+ mice showed lower survival, impaired renal function, impaired hepatic function, greater oxidative stress, upregulation of inflammatory pathways (at the systemic and kidney tissue levels), and increased NF-κB activation. It is noteworthy that CLP- Kl/+ mice also showed lower heart-rate variability, less sympathetic activity, impaired baroreflex sensitivity to sodium nitroprusside, and a blunted blood pressure response to phenylephrine. We also demonstrated that sepsis creates a state of acute Klotho deficiency. Given that low Klotho expression exacerbates sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction, Klotho might play a protective role in sepsis, especially in elderly individuals in whom Klotho expression is naturally reduced.
  • Yoshikazu Nemoto, Takanori Kumagai, Kenichi Ishizawa, Yutaka Miura, Takeshi Shiraishi, Chikayuki Morimoto, Kazuhiro Sakai, Hiroki Omizo, Osamu Yamazaki, Yoshifuru Tamura, Yoshihide Fujigaki, Hiroshi Kawachi, Makoto Kuro-O, Shunya Uchida, Shigeru Shibata
    Scientific reports 9 (1) 1732 - 1732 2019/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent clinical studies indicate that the disturbed phosphate metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may facilitate kidney injury; nonetheless, the causal role of phosphate in CKD progression remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that intestinal phosphate binding by sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SF) ameliorates renal injury in the rat remnant kidney model. Sprague-Dawley rats received 5/6 nephrectomy (RK) and had a normal chow or the same diet containing SF (RK + SF). RK rats showed increased plasma FGF23 and phosphate levels, which were suppressed by SF administration. Of note, albuminuria in RK rats was significantly ameliorated by SF at both 4 and 8 weeks. SF also attenuated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury. Moreover, several different approaches confirmed the protective effects on podocytes, explaining the attenuation of glomerulosclerosis and albuminuria observed in this study. As a possible mechanism, we found that SF attenuated renal inflammation and fibrosis in RK rats. Interestingly, von Kossa staining of the kidney revealed calcium phosphate deposition in neither RK nor RK + SF rats; however, plasma levels of calciprotein particles were significantly reduced by SF. These data indicate that latent positive phosphate balance accelerates CKD progression from early stages, even when overt ectopic calcification is absent.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 34 (1) 15 - 21 0931-0509 2019/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Three members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, are different from the other members in two major aspects. First, they are actually not growth factors but endocrine factors that regulate various metabolic processes. Second, their physiological receptors are not FGF receptors (FGFRs) but binary complexes of FGFRs and Klotho proteins. FGF23 and FGF21 have emerged as biomarkers that start increasing in early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). FGF23 is a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone that binds to the αKlotho-FGFR complex expressed in renal tubules to increase phosphate excretion per nephron. The FGF23 increase is deemed necessary to compensate for the decrease in the nephron number during CKD progression and to maintain the phosphate balance. However, the increase in phosphate excretion per nephron induces renal tubular damage and accelerates nephron loss. CKD progression is also associated with an increase in calciprotein particles (CPPs) in the blood. CPPs are calcium-phosphate nanoparticles with the ability to induce endothelial damage and inflammatory responses. The fact that serum CPP levels are correlated with vascular calcification/stiffness and mortality in CKD patients suggests that CPPs may serve as a 'pathogen' of cardiovascular complications. Like FGF23, FGF21 starts increasing in early-stage CKD. FGF21 is a liver-derived hormone that binds to the βKlotho-FGFR complex expressed in the central nervous system to induce stress responses, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Thus FGF21 and FGF23 are not merely biomarkers for CKD progression but potential pathogenic agents that accelerate CKD progression and aggravate cardiovascular complications.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Nature reviews. Nephrology 15 (1) 27 - 44 2019/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Klotho proteins, αKlotho and βKlotho, are essential components of endocrine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor complexes, as they are required for the high-affinity binding of FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 to their cognate FGF receptors (FGFRs). Collectively, these proteins form a unique endocrine system that governs multiple metabolic processes in mammals. FGF19 is a satiety hormone that is secreted from the intestine on ingestion of food and binds the βKlotho-FGFR4 complex in hepatocytes to promote metabolic responses to feeding. By contrast, under fasting conditions, the liver secretes the starvation hormone FGF21, which induces metabolic responses to fasting and stress responses through the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system following binding to the βKlotho-FGFR1c complex in adipocytes and the suprachiasmatic nucleus, respectively. Finally, FGF23 is secreted by osteocytes in response to phosphate intake and binds to αKlotho-FGFR complexes, which are expressed most abundantly in renal tubules, to regulate mineral metabolism. Growing evidence suggests that the FGF-Klotho endocrine system also has a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ageing-related disorders, including diabetes, cancer, arteriosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, targeting the FGF-Klotho endocrine axes might have therapeutic benefit in multiple systems; investigation of the crystal structures of FGF-Klotho-FGFR complexes is paving the way for the development of drugs that can regulate these axes.
  • Jun Tsunezumi, Hidekazu Sugiura, Lalhaba Oinam, Aktar Ali, Bui Quoc Thang, Aiko Sada, Yoshito Yamashiro, Makoto Kuro-O, Hiromi Yanagisawa
    Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 74 5 - 20 0945-053X 2018/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ectopic calcification occurs during development of chronic kidney disease and has a negative impact on long-term prognosis. The precise molecular mechanism and prevention strategies, however, are not established. Fibulin-7 (Fbln7) is a matricellular protein structurally similar to elastogenic short fibulins, shown to bind dental mesenchymal cells and heparin. Here, we report that Fbln7 is highly expressed in renal tubular epithelium in the adult kidney and mediates renal calcification in mice. In vitro analysis revealed that Fbln7 bound heparin at the N-terminal coiled-coil domain. In Fbln7-expressing CHO-K1 cells, exogenous heparin increased the release of Fbln7 into conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. This heparin-induced Fbln7 release was abrogated in CHO-745 cells lacking heparan sulfate proteoglycan or in CHO-K1 cells expressing the Fbln7 mutant lacking the N-terminal coiled-coil domain, suggesting that Fbln7 was tethered to pericellular matrix via this domain. Interestingly, Fbln7 knockout (Fbln7-/-) mice were protected from renal tubular calcification induced by high phosphate diet. Mechanistically, Fbln7 bound artificial calcium phosphate particles (aCPP) implicated in calcification and renal inflammation. Binding was decreased significantly in Fbln7-/- primary kidney cells relative to wild-type cells. Further, overexpression of Fbln7 increased binding to aCPP. Addition of heparin reduced binding between aCPP and wild-type cells to levels of Fbln7-/- cells. Taken together, our study suggests that Fbln7 is a local mediator of calcium deposition and that releasing Fbln7 from the cell surface by heparin/heparin derivatives or Fbln7 inhibitory antibodies may provide a novel strategy to prevent ectopic calcification in vivo.
  • Jean Sébastien Saulnier-Blache, Rory Wilson, Kristaps Klavins, Delyth Graham, Ioana Alesutan, Gabi Kastenmüller, Rui Wang-Sattler, Jerzy Adamski, Michael Roden, Wolfgang Rathmann, Jochen Seissler, Christine Meisinger, Wolfgang Koenig, Joachim Thiery, Karsten Suhre, Annette Peters, Makuto Kuro-O, Florian Lang, Guido Dallmann, Christian Delles, Jakob Voelkl, Melanie Waldenberger, Jean-Loup Bascands, Julie Klein, Joost P Schanstra
    Atherosclerosis 276 140 - 147 2018/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preclinical experiments on animal models are essential to understand the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolomics allows access to the metabolic perturbations associated with CVD in heart and vessels. Here we assessed which potential animal CVD model most closely mimics the serum metabolite signature of increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in humans, a clinical parameter widely accepted as a surrogate of CVD. METHODS: A targeted mass spectrometry assay was used to quantify and compare a series of blood metabolites between 1362 individuals (KORA F4 cohort) and 5 animal CVD models: ApoE-/-, Ldlr-/-, and klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) and SHRSP rats with or without salt feeding. The metabolite signatures were obtained using linear regressions adjusted for various co-variates. RESULTS: In human, increased cIMT [quartile Q4 vs. Q1] was associated with 26 metabolites (9 acylcarnitines, 2 lysophosphatidylcholines, 9 phosphatidylcholines and 6 sphingomyelins). Acylcarnitines correlated preferentially with serum glucose and creatinine. Phospholipids correlated preferentially with cholesterol (total and LDL). The human signature correlated positively and significantly with Ldlr-/- and ApoE-/- mice, while correlation with kl/kl mice and SHRP rats was either negative and non-significant. Human and Ldlr-/- mice shared 11 significant metabolites displaying the same direction of regulation: 5 phosphatidylcholines, 1 lysophosphatidylcholines, 5 sphingomyelins; ApoE-/- mice shared 10. CONCLUSIONS: The human cIMT signature was partially mimicked by Ldlr-/- and ApoE-/- mice. These animal models might help better understand the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the vessel metabolic perturbations associated with, and contributing to metabolic disorders in CVD.
  • Takaaki Kimura, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Tetsu Akimoto, Takahiro Shinzato, Toshihiro Shimizu, Akira Kurosawa, Taro Kubo, Koji Nanmoku, Makoto Kuro-O, Takashi Yagisawa
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 315 (2) F345-F352 - F352 1931-857X 2018/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho, which was originally identified as an antiaging gene, forms a complex with fibroblast growth factor 23 receptor in the kidney, with subsequent signaling that regulates mineral metabolism. Other biological activities of Klotho, including antiaging effects such as protection from various types of cellular stress, have been shown; however, the precise mechanism of these effects of Klotho gene in the healthy human kidney is not well understood. In this study, we examined the relationships of Klotho and antioxidative stress gene expression levels in zero-hour biopsy specimens from 44 donors in kidney transplantation and verified them in animal models whose Klotho gene expression levels were varied. The nitrotyrosine expression level in the kidney was evaluated in these animal models. Expression levels of Klotho gene were positively correlated with the p53 gene and antioxidant enzyme genes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, peroxiredoxin 3 (PRDX3), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) but not clinical parameters such as age and renal function or pathological features such as glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis tubular atrophy. The expression levels of all genes were significantly higher in mice with Klotho overexpression than in wild-type mice, and those except for catalase, PRDX3, and GPX1 were significantly lower in Klotho-deficient mice than in wild-type littermate mice. Nitrotyrosine-positive bands of various sizes were observed in kidney from Klotho-deficient mice only. The preservation of Klotho gene expression might induce the antioxidative stress mechanism for homeostasis of healthy human kidney independently of its general condition, including age, renal function, and histological findings.
  • Jakob Voelkl, Rashad Tuffaha, Trang T D Luong, Daniel Zickler, Jaber Masyout, Martina Feger, Nicolas Verheyen, Florian Blaschke, Makoto Kuro-O, Andreas Tomaschitz, Stefan Pilz, Andreas Pasch, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Juergen E Scherberich, Florian Lang, Burkert Pieske, Ioana Alesutan
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 29 (6) 1636 - 1648 1046-6673 2018/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Background The high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with CKD may result in large part from medial vascular calcification, a process promoted by hyperphosphatemia and involving osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Reduced serum zinc levels have frequently been observed in patients with CKD, but the functional relevance of this remains unclear.Methods We performed experiments in primary human aortic VSMCs; klotho-hypomorphic (kl/kl), subtotal nephrectomy, and cholecalciferol-overload mouse calcification models; and serum samples from patients with CKD.Results In cultured VSMCs, treatment with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) blunted phosphate-induced calcification, osteo-/chondrogenic signaling, and NF-κB activation. ZnSO4 increased the abundance of zinc-finger protein TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20), a suppressor of the NF-κB pathway, by zinc-sensing receptor ZnR/GPR39-dependent upregulation of TNFAIP3 gene expression. Silencing of TNFAIP3 in VSMCs blunted the anticalcific effects of ZnSO4 under high phosphate conditions. kl/kl mice showed reduced plasma zinc levels, and ZnSO4 supplementation strongly blunted vascular calcification and aortic osteoinduction and upregulated aortic Tnfaip3 expression. ZnSO4 ameliorated vascular calcification in mice with chronic renal failure and mice with cholecalciferol overload. In patients with CKD, serum zinc concentrations inversely correlated with serum calcification propensity. Finally, ZnSO4 ameliorated the osteoinductive effects of uremic serum in VSMCs.Conclusions Zinc supplementation ameliorates phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and vascular calcification through an active cellular mechanism resulting from GPR39-dependent induction of TNFAIP3 and subsequent suppression of the NF-κB pathway. Zinc supplementation may be a simple treatment to reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD.
  • Fernanda Oliveira Coelho, Lecticia Barbosa Jorge, Ana Carolina de Bragança Viciana, Talita R Sanches, Fernando Dos Santos, Claudia M B Helou, Maria Claudia Irigoyen, Makoto Kuro-O, Lucia Andrade
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 314 (5) F992-F998 - F998 1931-857X 2018/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene, which encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and a secreted protein, is expressed predominantly by the distal renal tubules and is related to calcium phosphorus metabolism, ion channel regulation, intracellular signaling pathways, and longevity. Klotho deficiency aggravates acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis. Exposure to nicotine also worsens kidney injury. Here, we investigated renal Klotho protein expression in a mouse model of chronic (28-day) nicotine exposure, in which mice received nicotine or vehicle (saccharine) in drinking water, comparing wild-type (WT) mice, klotho-haploinsufficient ( kl/+) mice, and their respective controls, in terms of the effects of that exposure. Nicotine exposure was associated with a significant decline in renal Klotho expression in WT and kl/+ mice as well as a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate in WT mice. Although plasma electrolytes were similar among the groups, fractional excretion of sodium was reduced in both nicotine-exposed groups. The nicotine-WT mice presented augmented baroreflex sensitivity to nitroprusside and augmented sympathetic cardiac modulation. However, nicotine- kl/+ mice presented higher plasma levels of urea and aldosterone together with a higher α-index (spontaneous baroreflex) and higher peripheral sympathetic modulation, as evaluated by spectral analysis. We can conclude that nicotine downregulates Klotho expression as well as that renal and autonomic responses to nicotine exposure are modified in kl/+ mice.
  • Satoshi Kozawa, Ryosuke Ueda, Kyoji Urayama, Fumihiko Sagawa, Satsuki Endo, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Hiroshi Kurosu, Glicia Maria de Almeida, Sharif M Hasan, Kiyokazu Nakazato, Shinji Ozaki, Yoshinori Yamashita, Makoto Kuro-O, Thomas N Sato
    iScience 2 238 - 268 2018/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Virtually all diseases affect multiple organs. However, our knowledge of the body-wide effects remains limited. Here, we report the body-wide transcriptome landscape across 13-23 organs of mouse models of myocardial infarction, diabetes, kidney diseases, cancer, and pre-mature aging. Using such datasets, we find (1) differential gene expression in diverse organs across all models; (2) skin as a disease-sensor organ represented by disease-specific activities of putative gene-expression network; (3) a bone-skin cross talk mediated by a bone-derived hormone, FGF23, in response to dysregulated phosphate homeostasis, a known risk-factor for kidney diseases; (4) candidates for the signature activities of many more putative inter-organ cross talk for diseases; and (5) a cross-species map illustrating organ-to-organ and model-to-disease relationships between human and mouse. These findings demonstrate the usefulness and the potential of such body-wide datasets encompassing mouse models of diverse disease types as a resource in biological and medical sciences. Furthermore, the findings described herein could be exploited for designing disease diagnosis and treatment.
  • José Alberto Navarro-García, María Fernández-Velasco, Carmen Delgado, Juan F Delgado, Makoto Kuro-O, Luis M Ruilope, Gema Ruiz-Hurtado
    European journal of clinical investigation 48 (4) 0014-2972 2018/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: Profound disturbances in mineral metabolism are closely linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. However, increasing clinical and experimental evidence indicates that alterations in phosphate homoeostasis could have an even stronger impact on the heart. AIM: The aim of this review is to provide the reader with an update of how alterations in mineral metabolism are related to direct and indirect cardiotoxic effects beyond the nephrology setting. RESULTS: Evidence exists that alterations in mineral metabolism that are related to changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and the FGF-23-klotho axis have direct pathological consequences for the heart. Alterations in plasma PTH levels are associated with cardiac dysfunction and detrimental cardiac remodelling. Several clinical studies have associated vitamin D deficiency with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CV) and its risk factors. Recent evidences support deleterious direct and nonphosphaturic effects of FGF-23 on the heart as hypertrophy development. In contrast, reduced systemic klotho levels are related to CV damage, at least when advanced age is present. In addition, we discuss how these mineral metabolism molecules can counteract each other in some situations, in the context of failed clinical trials on cardiac protection as is the case of vitamin D supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Among all mineral components, an increase in systemic FGF-23 levels is considered to have the greatest CV impact and risk. However, it is quite possible that many intracellular mechanisms mediated by FGF-23, especially those related to cardiomyocyte function, remain to be discovered.
  • 保存期慢性腎臓病患者の血中FGF21は夜間間欠的低酸素血症と関連する
    村上 琢哉, 増田 貴博, 小原 麻里菜, 椎崎 和弘, 岡田 麻里, 大原 健, 吉澤 寛道, 三木 敦史, 永山 泉, 岡 健太郎, 金子 美和, 朝倉 真希, 渡邉 裕子, 秋元 哲, 齋藤 修, 武藤 重明, 黒尾 誠, 長田 太助
    日本腎臓学会誌 (一社)日本腎臓学会 60 (3) 365 - 365 0385-2385 2018/04
  • Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
    Nature reviews. Nephrology 14 (4) 265 - 284 2018/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress. Biomimetic studies suggest that the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) offers protection in extreme environmental conditions and promotes longevity in the animal kingdom. Similarly, during months of fasting, immobilization and anuria, hibernating bears are protected from muscle wasting, azotaemia, thrombotic complications, organ damage and osteoporosis - features that are often associated with CKD. Improved understanding of the susceptibility and protective mechanisms of these animals and others could provide insights into novel strategies to prevent and treat several human diseases, such as CKD and ageing-associated complications. An integrated collaboration between nephrologists and experts from other fields, such as veterinarians, zoologists, biologists, anthropologists and ecologists, could introduce a novel approach for improving human health and help nephrologists to find novel treatment strategies for CKD.
  • Hodaka Yamada, Makoto Kuro-O, San-E Ishikawa, Shunsuke Funazaki, Ikuyo Kusaka, Masafumi Kakei, Kazuo Hara
    Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) 23 (3) 226 - 230 2018/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    AIM: Calciprotein particles (CPPs), colloidal protein-mineral nanoparticles composed of solid-phase calcium phosphate and serum protein fetuin-A found in blood, are emerging as a novel component of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The relationship of CPPs with factors known to underlie the CKD-MBD pathophysiology is not well known.The aim of this study is to examine daily variations in CPPs as well as their association with mineral metabolism parameters in normal individuals and early-stage CKD patients. METHODS: Twenty subjects (10 healthy adults, 10 diabetic patients) were enrolled. Serum CPP Fetuin-A was measured and analyzed in relation to clinical parameters. RESULTS: Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were 103 ± 11 and 75 ± 24 mL/min per 1.73 m2 in healthy adults and diabetic patients, respectively. Serum CPP Fetuin-A (g/L) were elevated at postprandial 2 h in diabetic patients. Furthermore, serum CPP Fetuin-A were inversely correlated with eGFR and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and magnesium levels and were positively correlated with serum fibroblast growth factor-23. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that serum CPP Fetuin-A were affected by food intake and may contribute to the pathophysiology of mineral metabolism in subjects with normal and moderately impaired renal function.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Nature 553 (7689) 409 - 410 0028-0836 2018/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Yutaka Miura, Yoshitaka Iwazu, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Tetsu Akimoto, Kazuhiko Kotani, Masahiko Kurabayashi, Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-O
    Scientific reports 8 (1) 1256 - 1256 2018/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Calciprotein particles (CPP) are solid-phase calcium-phosphate bound to serum protein fetuin-A and dispersed as colloids in the blood. Recent clinical studies indicated that serum CPP levels were increased with decline of renal function and associated with inflammation and vascular calcification. However, CPP assays used in these studies measured only a part of CPP over a certain particle size and density. Here we show that such CPP are mostly artifacts generated during processing of serum samples in vitro. The native CPP in fresh plasma are smaller in size and lower in density than those artifactual CPP, composed of fetuin-A carrying amorphous and/or crystalline calcium-phosphate, and increased primarily with serum phosphate levels. We have identified several physicochemical factors that promote aggregation/dissolution of CPP and transition of the calcium-phosphate from the amorphous phase to the crystalline phase in vitro, including addition of anti-coagulants, composition of buffer for sample dilution, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, the speed for sample freezing, and how many hours the samples were left at what temperature. Therefore, it is of critical importance to standardize these factors during sample preparation in clinical studies on CPP and to investigate the biological activity of the native CPP.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    International journal of nephrology 2018 9679841 - 9679841 2090-214X 2018 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The basic research of aging has been primarily focused on elucidating mechanisms of aging and longevity that are evolutionarily conserved from yeasts to primates. Such efforts have culminated in the notion that (1) senescence at the cellular level is associated with aging at the organismal level and that (2) calorie restriction and growth suppression decelerate aging. However, these important findings in the basic research have not necessarily been linked to improvement of daily medical practice in the aging society. It has become increasingly important to investigate mechanisms of aging unique to mammals or humans and apply the research fruits for the treatment of major age-related disorders to extend the health span. Seminal studies on the klotho mouse, a mutant exhibiting a premature aging syndrome, have identified phosphate as a proaging factor in mammals. In this review, mechanisms of phosphate-induced premature aging and potential therapeutic targets will be discussed, which may be directly applicable for developing novel strategies for the treatment of chronic kidney disease and its complications.
  • Hodaka Yamada, Makoto Kuro-O, Shunsuke Funazaki, San-E Ishikawa, Masafumi Kakei, Kazuo Hara
    International journal of nephrology 2018 7530923 - 7530923 2090-214X 2018 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Renal function decline is associated with progressive type 2 diabetes mellitus, which causes mineral and bone disorders. In the present study, we defined the ratio of urinary phosphate excretion (mg/day) to serum fibroblast growth factor 23 as the nephron index. We examined changes in the nephron index in type 2 diabetes patients with early stage chronic kidney disease (stages 1-3), enrolling 15 patients and retrospectively analysing the follow-up data. After follow-up at 5.4 years, we observed no significant changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate; the nephron index, however, was significantly reduced between the baseline and the follow-up. We propose that the nephron index may be potentially useful as a biomarker for monitoring the decline of renal function in the early stages of diabetic chronic kidney disease patients.
  • Jun Tsunezumi, Hidekazu Sugiura, Lalhaba Oinam, Aktar Ali, Bui Quoc Thang, Aiko Sada, Yoshito Yamashiro, Makoto Kuro-O, Hiromi Yanagisawa
    Matrix Biology 74 5 - 20 1569-1802 2018 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ectopic calcification occurs during development of chronic kidney disease and has a negative impact on long-term prognosis. The precise molecular mechanism and prevention strategies, however, are not established. Fibulin-7 (Fbln7) is a matricellular protein structurally similar to elastogenic short fibulins, shown to bind dental mesenchymal cells and heparin. Here, we report that Fbln7 is highly expressed in renal tubular epithelium in the adult kidney and mediates renal calcification in mice. In vitro analysis revealed that Fbln7 bound heparin at the N-terminal coiled-coil domain. In Fbln7-expressing CHO-K1 cells, exogenous heparin increased the release of Fbln7 into conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. This heparin-induced Fbln7 release was abrogated in CHO-745 cells lacking heparan sulfate proteoglycan or in CHO-K1 cells expressing the Fbln7 mutant lacking the N-terminal coiled-coil domain, suggesting that Fbln7 was tethered to pericellular matrix via this domain. Interestingly, Fbln7 knockout (Fbln7−/−) mice were protected from renal tubular calcification induced by high phosphate diet. Mechanistically, Fbln7 bound artificial calcium phosphate particles (aCPP) implicated in calcification and renal inflammation. Binding was decreased significantly in Fbln7−/− primary kidney cells relative to wild-type cells. Further, overexpression of Fbln7 increased binding to aCPP. Addition of heparin reduced binding between aCPP and wild-type cells to levels of Fbln7−/− cells. Taken together, our study suggests that Fbln7 is a local mediator of calcium deposition and that releasing Fbln7 from the cell surface by heparin/heparin derivatives or Fbln7 inhibitory antibodies may provide a novel strategy to prevent ectopic calcification in vivo.
  • Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Steven S Welc, Guiseppina Samengo, Chiara Rinaldi, Catherine Lindsey, Ying Wang, Jeongyoon Lee, Makoto Kuro-O, James G Tidball
    Human molecular genetics 27 (1) 14 - 29 2018/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle wasting disease in which inflammation influences the severity of pathology. We found that the onset of muscle inflammation in the mdx mouse model of DMD coincides with large increases in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interferon gamma (IFNγ)] and dramatic reductions of the pro-myogenic protein Klotho in muscle cells and large increases of Klotho in pro-regenerative, CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ treatments reduced Klotho in muscle cells and increased Klotho in macrophages. Because CD206+/Klotho+ macrophages were concentrated at sites of muscle regeneration, we tested whether macrophage-derived Klotho promotes myogenesis. Klotho transgenic macrophages had a pro-proliferative influence on muscle cells that was ablated by neutralizing antibodies to Klotho and conditioned media from Klotho mutant macrophages did not increase muscle cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, transplantation of bone marrow cells from Klotho transgenic mice into mdx recipients increased numbers of myogenic cells and increased the size of muscle fibers. Klotho also acted directly on macrophages, stimulating their secretion of TNFα. Because TNFα is a muscle mitogen, we tested whether the pro-proliferative effects of Klotho on muscle cells were mediated by TNFα and found that increased proliferation caused by Klotho was reduced by anti-TNFα. Collectively, these data show that pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to silencing of Klotho in dystrophic muscle, but increase Klotho expression by macrophages. Our findings also show that macrophage-derived Klotho can promote muscle regeneration by expanding populations of muscle stem cells and increasing muscle fiber growth in dystrophic muscle.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Nature 553 (7689) 409 - 410 2018/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda, Carmen Herencia, Maria Victoria Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, Maria Encarnación Rodriguez-Ortiz, Juan M Diaz-Tocados, Noemi Vergara, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Maria Dolores Salmerón, William G Richards, Arnold Felsenfeld, Makoto Kuro-O, Yolanda Almadén, Mariano Rodríguez
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 31 (9) 3858 - 3867 2017/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In renal failure, hyperphosphatemia occurs despite a marked elevation in serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23. Abnormal regulation of the FGFR1-Klotho receptor complex may cause a resistance to the phosphaturic action of FGF23. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the regulation of renal Klotho and FGF receptor (FEFR)-1 in healthy and uremic rats induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. In normal rats, the infusion of rat recombinant FGF23 enhanced phosphaturia and increased renal FGFR1 expression; however, Klotho expression was reduced. Uremic rats on a high-phosphate (HP) diet presented hyperphosphatemia with marked elevation of FGF23 and an increased fractional excretion of phosphate (P) that was associated with a marked reduction of Klotho expression and an increase in FGFR1. After neutralization of FGF23 by anti-FGF23 administration, phosphaturia was still abundant, Klotho expression remained low, and the FGFR1 level was reduced. These results suggest that the expression of renal Klotho is modulated by phosphaturia, whereas the FGFR1 expression is regulated by FGF23. Calcitriol (CTR) administration prevented a decrease in renal Klotho expression. In HEK293 cells HP produced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, together with a reduction in Klotho. Wnt/β-catenin inhibition with Dkk-1 prevented the P-induced down-regulation of Klotho. The addition of CTR to HP medium was able to recover Klotho expression. In summary, high FGF23 levels increase FGFR1, whereas phosphaturia decreases Klotho expression through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.-Muñoz-Castañeda, J. R., Herencia, C., Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, M. V., Rodriguez-Ortiz, M. E., Diaz-Tocados, J. M., Vergara, N., Martínez-Moreno, J. M., Salmerón, M. D., Richards, W. G., Felsenfeld, A., Kuro-O, M., Almadén, Y., Rodríguez, M. Differential regulation of renal Klotho and FGFR1 in normal and uremic rats.
  • Ryuichi Watanabe, Nobuyuki Fujita, Yuiko Sato, Tami Kobayashi, Mayu Morita, Takatsugu Oike, Kana Miyamoto, Makoto Kuro-O, Toshimi Michigami, Seiji Fukumoto, Takashi Tsuji, Yoshiaki Toyama, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Takeshi Miyamoto
    Scientific reports 7 (1) 7786 - 7786 2017/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Control of phosphate metabolism is crucial to regulate aging in mammals. Klotho is a well-known anti-aging factor that regulates phosphate metabolism: mice mutant or deficient in Klotho exhibit phenotypes resembling human aging. Here we show that ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (Enpp1) is required for Klotho expression under phosphate overload conditions. Loss-of-function Enpp1 ttw/ttw mice under phosphate overload conditions exhibited phenotypes resembling human aging and Klotho mutants, such as short life span, arteriosclerosis and osteoporosis, with elevated serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. Enpp1 ttw/ttw mice also exhibited significantly reduced renal Klotho expression under phosphate overload conditions, and aging phenotypes in these mice were rescued by Klotho overexpression, a low vitamin D diet or vitamin D receptor knockout. These findings indicate that Enpp1 plays a crucial role in regulating aging via Klotho expression under phosphate overload conditions.
  • Makoto Kuro-O, Orson W Moe
    Bone 100 4 - 18 2017/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The vertebrate endoskeleton is not a mere frame for muscle attachment to facilitate locomotion, but is a massive organ integrated with many physiologic functions including mineral and energy metabolism. Mineral balance is maintained by tightly controlled ion fluxes that are external (intestine and kidney) and internal (between bone and other organs), and are regulated and coordinated by many endocrine signals between these organs. The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and Klotho gene families are complex systems that co-evolved with the endoskeleton. In particular, FGF23 and αKlotho which are primarily derived from bone and kidney respectively, are critical in maintaining mineral metabolism where each of these proteins serving highly diverse roles; abound with many unanswered questions regarding their upstream regulation and downstream functions. Genetic lesions of components of this network produce discreet disturbances in many facets of mineral metabolism. One acquired condition with colossal elevations of FGF23 and suppression of αKlotho is chronic kidney disease where multiple organ dysfunction contributes to the morbidity and mortality. However, the single most important group of derangements that encompasses the largest breadth of complications is mineral metabolism disorders. Mineral metabolic disorders in CKD impact negatively and significantly on the progression of renal disease as well as extra-renal complications. Knowledge of the origin, nature, and impact of phosphate, FGF23, and αKlotho derangements is pivotal to understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of CKD.
  • Ioana Alesutan, Jakob Voelkl, Martina Feger, Denise V Kratschmar, Tatsiana Castor, Sobuj Mia, Michael Sacherer, Robert Viereck, Oliver Borst, Christina Leibrock, Meinrad Gawaz, Makoto Kuro-O, Stefan Pilz, Andreas Tomaschitz, Alex Odermatt, Burkert Pieske, Carsten A Wagner, Florian Lang
    Scientific reports 7 (1) 2059 - 2059 2017/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Vascular calcification resulting from hyperphosphatemia is a major determinant of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular calcification is driven by aldosterone-sensitive osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We show that even in absence of exogenous aldosterone, silencing and pharmacological inhibition (spironolactone, eplerenone) of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) ameliorated phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transformation of primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). High phosphate concentrations up-regulated aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression in HAoSMCs. Silencing and deficiency of CYP11B2 in VSMCs ameliorated phosphate-induced osteogenic reprogramming and calcification. Phosphate treatment was followed by nuclear export of APEX1, a CYP11B2 transcriptional repressor. APEX1 silencing up-regulated CYP11B2 expression and stimulated osteo-/chondrogenic transformation. APEX1 overexpression blunted the phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transformation and calcification of HAoSMCs. Cyp11b2 expression was higher in aortic tissue of hyperphosphatemic klotho-hypomorphic (kl/kl) mice than in wild-type mice. In adrenalectomized kl/kl mice, spironolactone treatment still significantly ameliorated aortic osteoinductive reprogramming. Our findings suggest that VSMCs express aldosterone synthase, which is up-regulated by phosphate-induced disruption of APEX1-dependent gene suppression. Vascular CYP11B2 may contribute to stimulation of VSMCs osteo-/chondrogenic transformation during hyperphosphatemia.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Mingjun Shi, Nancy Gillings, Brianna Flores, Masaya Takahashi, Makoto Kuro-O, Orson W Moe
    Kidney international 91 (5) 1104 - 1114 2017/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    α-Klotho is highly expressed in the kidney, and its extracellular domain is cleaved and released into the circulation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of α-Klotho deficiency, which exerts multiple negative systemic effects on numerous organs including the cardiovascular system. Since acute kidney injury (AKI) greatly escalates the risk of CKD development, we explored the effect of α-Klotho on prevention and treatment on post-AKI to CKD progression and cardiovascular disease. Therein, ischemia reperfusion injury-induced AKI was followed by early administration of recombinant α-Klotho or vehicle starting one day and continued for four days after kidney injury (CKD prevention protocol). A CKD model was generated by unilateral nephrectomy plus contralateral ischemia reperfusion injury. Late administration of α-Klotho in this model was started four weeks after injury and sustained for 12 weeks (CKD treatment protocol). The prevention protocol precluded AKI to CKD progression and protected the heart from cardiac remodeling in the post-AKI model. One important effect of exogenous α-Klotho therapy was the restoration of endogenous α-Klotho levels long after the cessation of exogenous α-Klotho therapy. The treatment protocol still effectively improved renal function and attenuated cardiac remodeling in CKD, although these parameters did not completely return to normal. In addition, α-Klotho administration also attenuated high phosphate diet-induced renal and cardiac fibrosis, and improved renal and cardiac function in the absence of pre-existing renal disease. Thus, recombinant α-Klotho protein is safe and efficacious, and might be a promising prophylactic or therapeutic option for prevention or retardation of AKI-to-CKD progression and uremic cardiomyopathy.
  • Putra Santoso, Masanori Nakata, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Zhang Boyang, Kumari Parmila, Zesemdorj Otgon-Uul, Koshi Hashimoto, Tetsurou Satoh, Masatomo Mori, Makoto Kuro-O, Toshihiko Yada
    Scientific reports 7 45819 - 45819 2017/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), liver-derived hormone, exerts diverse metabolic effects, being considered for clinical application to treat obesity and diabetes. However, its anorexigenic effect is debatable and whether it involves the central mechanism remains unclarified. Moreover, the neuron mediating FGF21's anorexigenic effect and the systemic energy state supporting it are unclear. We explored the target neuron and fed/fasted state dependence of FGF21's anorexigenic action. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of FGF21 markedly suppressed food intake in fed mice with elevated blood glucose. FGF21 induced c-Fos expression preferentially in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and increased mRNA expression selectively for nucleobindin 2/nesfatin-1 (NUCB2/Nesf-1). FGF21 at elevated glucose increased [Ca2+]i in PVN NUCB2/Nesf-1 neurons. FGF21 failed to suppress food intake in PVN-preferential Sim1-Nucb2-KO mice. These findings reveal that FGF21, assisted by elevated glucose, activates PVN NUCB2/Nesf-1 neurons to suppress feeding under fed states, serving as the glycemia-monitoring messenger of liver-hypothalamic network for integrative regulation of energy and glucose metabolism.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Clinical and experimental nephrology 21 (Suppl 1) 64 - 69 2017/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone that acts primarily on the kidney to induce phosphaturia and suppress synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. The unique feature of FGF23 is that it requires Klotho as an obligate co-receptor. The FGF23-Klotho system has emerged as an endocrine axis indispensable for maintaining phosphate homeostasis. Mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) can be viewed as a series of events triggered by a compensatory response of the FGF23-Klotho system to excess phosphate intake relative to the residual nephron number. Furthermore, the fact that disruption of the FGF23-Klotho system causes phosphate retention and a syndrome resembling aging in mammals has led to the notion that phosphate accelerates aging. The aging-like pathology caused by phosphate, or phosphatopathy, may be unique to the higher organisms having the Klotho gene and provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of aging in humans.
  • 末期腎不全患者の血中fibroblast growth factor 21(FGF21)高値は生命予後悪化の危険因子である
    小原 麻里菜, 増田 貴博, 椎崎 和弘, 秋元 哲, 本間 寿美子, 渡邉 裕子, 宮澤 保春, 浅野 泰, 黒尾 誠, 長田 太助
    日本内科学会雑誌 (一社)日本内科学会 106 (Suppl.) 176  0021-5384 2017/02 [Not refereed][Not invited]
  • Kazuki Kawakami, Ai Takeshita, Kenryo Furushima, Masayasu Miyajima, Ikuji Hatamura, Makoto Kuro-O, Yasuhide Furuta, Kazushige Sakaguchi
    Scientific reports 7 40534 - 40534 2017/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which parathyroid hormone (PTH) is excessively secreted in response to factors such as hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia, and low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels, is commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is accompanied by high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). However, the effect of FGF23 on the parathyroid glands (PG) remains controversial. To bind to FGF receptors, FGF23 requires αKlotho, which is highly expressed in the PG. Here, we examined the effects of Fgfr1-3, αKlotho, or Fgfr1-4 ablation specifically in the PG (conditional knockout, cKO). When mice with early to mid-stage CKD with and without cKO were compared, plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphate, FGF23, and 1,25(OH)2D did not change significantly. In contrast, plasma PTH levels, which were elevated in CKD mice, were significantly decreased in cKO mice. PG from CKD mice showed augmentation of cell proliferation, which was significantly suppressed by cKO. Parathyroid tissue cultured for 4 days showed upregulation of PTH secretion and cell proliferation in response to FGF23. Both these effects were inhibited by cKO. These findings suggest that FGF23 is a long-term inducer of parathyroid cell proliferation and PTH secretion, and is one cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD.
  • Marina Kohara, Takahiro Masuda, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Tetsu Akimoto, Yuko Watanabe, Sumiko Honma, Chuji Sekiguchi, Yasuharu Miyazawa, Eiji Kusano, Yoshinobu Kanda, Yasushi Asano, Makoto Kuro-O, Daisuke Nagata
    PloS one 12 (6) e0178971  2017 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine factor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, including early-stage chronic kidney disease, but its impact on clinical outcomes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients remains unclear. This study enrolled 90 ESRD patients receiving chronic hemodialysis who were categorized into low- and high-FGF21 groups by the median value. We investigated the association between circulating FGF21 levels and the cardiovascular event and mortality during a median follow-up period of 64 months. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the mortality rate was significantly higher in the high-FGF21 group than in the low-FGF21 group (28.3% vs. 9.1%, log-rank, P = 0.034), while the rate of cardiovascular events did not significantly differ between the two groups (30.4% vs. 22.7%, log-rank, P = 0.312). In multivariable Cox models adjusted a high FGF21 level was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 3.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.39-14.27, P = 0.009). Higher circulating FGF21 levels were associated with a high mortality rate, but not cardiovascular events in patient with ESRD, suggesting that circulating FGF21 levels serve as a predictive marker for mortality in these subjects.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 74 (9) 1467 - 1473 0047-1852 2016/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Three fibroblast growth factor(FGF) members, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, function as endocrine factors that regulate various metabolic processes. The unique feature of these endo- crine FGFs is the fact that they require Klotho proteins to bind to their cognate FGF recep- tors. Defects in Klotho or FGF23 result in disturbed mineral metabolism and accelerated aging. The aging phenotypes can be alleviated by correcting phosphate imbalance, leading us to hypothesize that phosphate accelerates aging. In contrast, overexpression of FGF21 extends life span in mice. Thus, the FGF-Klotho endocrine axes have emerged as key regula- tors of the aging process and are regarded as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of age-related disorders.
  • Michelle Wehling-Henricks, Zhenzhi Li, Catherine Lindsey, Ying Wang, Steven S Welc, Julian N Ramos, Négar Khanlou, Makoto Kuro-O, James G Tidball
    Human molecular genetics 25 (12) 2465 - 2482 2016/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal muscle disease involving progressive loss of muscle regenerative capacity and increased fibrosis. We tested whether epigenetic silencing of the klotho gene occurs in the mdx mouse model of DMD and whether klotho silencing is an important feature of the disease. Our findings show that klotho undergoes muscle-specific silencing at the acute onset of mdx pathology. Klotho experiences increased methylation of CpG sites in its promoter region, which is associated with gene silencing, and increases in a repressive histone mark, H3K9me2. Expression of a klotho transgene in mdx mice restored their longevity, reduced muscle wasting, improved function and greatly increased the pool of muscle-resident stem cells required for regeneration. Reductions of fibrosis in late, progressive stages of the mdx pathology achieved by transgene expression were paralleled by reduced expression of Wnt target genes (axin-2), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) and collagens types 1 and 3, indicating that Klotho inhibition of the profibrotic Wnt/TGFβ axis underlies its anti-fibrotic effect in aging, dystrophic muscle. Thus, epigenetic silencing of klotho during muscular dystrophy contributes substantially to lost regenerative capacity and increased fibrosis of dystrophic muscle during late progressive stages of the disease.
  • Ioana Alesutan, Martina Feger, Rashad Tuffaha, Tatsiana Castor, Katharina Musculus, Salvatore S Buehling, Christian L Heine, Makoto Kuro-O, Burkert Pieske, Kurt Schmidt, Andreas Tomaschitz, Winfried Maerz, Stefan Pilz, Andreas Meinitzer, Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang
    Cardiovascular research 110 (3) 408 - 18 2016/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    AIMS: Reduced homoarginine plasma levels are associated with unfavourable cardiovascular outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular events in CKD are fostered by vascular calcification, an active process promoted by hyperphosphatemia and involving osteo-/chondrogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The present study explored the effect of homoarginine on phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic signalling and vascular calcification. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experiments were performed in hyperphosphatemic klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl), in subtotal nephrectomy and vitamin D3-overload mouse calcification models and in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). As a result, plasma homoarginine levels were lower in kl/kl mice than in wild-type mice and in both genotypes significantly increased by lifelong treatment with homoarginine. Surprisingly, homoarginine treatment of kl/kl mice and of mice with renal failure after subtotal nephrectomy augmented vascular calcification and enhanced the transcript levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Pai1) and of osteogenic markers Msx2, Cbfa1, and Alpl. Similarly, homoarginine treatment of HAoSMCs increased phosphate-induced calcium deposition, ALP activity, as well as PAI1, MSX2, CBFA1, and ALPL mRNA levels. Homoarginine alone up-regulated osteo-/chondrogenic signalling and indicators of oxidative stress in HAoSMCs. Furthermore, homoarginine reduced citrulline formation from arginine by nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoforms. NO formation by NOS was reduced when using homoarginine as a substrate instead of arginine. The osteoinductive effects of homoarginine were mimicked by NOS inhibitor L-NAME and abolished by additional treatment with the NO donors DETA-NONOate and PAPA-NONOate or the antioxidants TEMPOL and TIRON. Furthermore, homoarginine augmented vascular calcification and aortic osteo-/chondrogenic signalling in mice after vitamin D3-overload, effects reversed by the NO donor molsidomine. CONCLUSION: Homoarginine augments osteo-/chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs and vascular calcification, effects involving impaired NO formation from homoarginine.
  • Takaaki Kimura, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Makoto Kuro-O
    Clinical calcium 26 (6) 859 - 66 2016/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho was originally identified as an anti-aging gene that accelerated aging when disrupted and extended life span when overexpressed in mice. The Klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and is expressed in the kidney and parathyroid gland. Klotho protein functions as an obligate subunit of the receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 is a hormone secreted from osteocytes and osteoblasts and acts on renal tubular cells to promote phosphate excretion into the urine and suppress synthesis of active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3;1,25(OH)(2)D(3)). Decreased Klotho expression due to the kidney damage including CKD might increase the circulating level of FGF23 and trigger disturbed mineral-bone metabolism, leading to CKD-MBD. Characteristic features of CKD-MBD including hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and decreased serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can be explained by (mal) adaptation of the Klotho-FGF23 system, which also contributes to the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). In addition to its function as a receptor for FGF23, the extracellular domain of Klotho is secreted by ectodomain shedding and functions as a humoral factor that regulates multiple ion channels and transporters. Thus, Klotho has emerged as a key regulator of mineral metabolism in health and disease.
  • Christina B Leibrock, Jakob Voelkl, Makoto Kuro-O, Florian Lang, Undine E Lang
    Scientific reports 6 24879 - 24879 2016/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho, a protein mainly expressed in kidney and cerebral choroid plexus, is a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3 formation. Klotho-deficient mice (kl/kl) suffer from excessive plasma 1,25(OH)2D3-, Ca(2+)- and phosphate-concentrations, leading to severe soft tissue calcification and accelerated aging. NH4Cl treatment prevents tissue calcification and premature ageing without affecting 1,25(OH)2D3-formation. The present study explored the impact of excessive 1,25(OH)2D3 formation in NH4Cl-treated kl/kl-mice on behavior. To this end kl/kl-mice and wild-type mice were treated with NH4Cl and either control diet or vitamin D deficient diet (LVD). As a result, plasma 1,25(OH)2D3-, Ca(2+)- and phosphate-concentrations were significantly higher in untreated and in NH4Cl-treated kl/kl-mice than in wild-type mice, a difference abrogated by LVD. In each, open field, dark-light box, and O-maze NH4Cl-treated kl/kl-mice showed significantly higher exploratory behavior than untreated wild-type mice, a difference abrogated by LVD. The time of floating in the forced swimming test was significantly shorter in NH4Cl treated kl/kl-mice compared to untreated wild-type mice and to kl/kl-mice on LVD. In wild-type animals, NH4Cl treatment did not significantly alter 1,25(OH)2D3, calcium and phosphate concentrations or exploratory behavior. In conclusion, the excessive 1,25(OH)2D3 formation in klotho-hypomorphic mice has a profound effect on murine behavior.
  • Priya Ravikumar, Liping Li, Jianfeng Ye, Mingjun Shi, Masatomo Taniguchi, Jianning Zhang, Makoto Kuro-o, Ming Chang Hu, Orson W Moe, Connie C W Hsia
    Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 120 (7) 723 - 32 2016/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    αKlotho is a circulating protein that originates predominantly from the kidney and exerts cytoprotective effects in distant sites. We previously showed in rodents that the lung is particularly vulnerable to αKlotho deficiency. Because acute lung injury is a common and serious complication of acute kidney injury (AKI), we hypothesized that αKlotho deficiency in AKI contributes to lung injury. To test the hypothesis, we created AKI by renal artery ischemia-reperfusion in rats and observed the development of alveolar interstitial edema and increased pulmonary oxidative damage to DNA, protein, and lipids. Administration of αKlotho-containing conditioned media 6 h post-AKI did not alter plasma creatinine but improved recovery of endogenous αKlotho production 3 days post-AKI, reduced lung edema and oxidative damage, and increased endogenous antioxidative capacity in the lung. Intravenously injected αKlotho rapidly exits alveolar capillaries as a macromolecule, suggesting transcytosis and direct access to the epithelium. To explore the epithelial action of αKlotho, we simulated oxidative stress in vitro by adding hydrogen peroxide to cultured A549 lung epithelial cells. Purified recombinant αKlotho directly protected cells at 20 pM with half-maximal effects at 40-50 pM, which is compatible with circulating αKlotho levels. Addition of recombinant αKlotho activated an antioxidant response element reporter and increased the levels of target proteins of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 related factor system. In summary, αKlotho deficiency in AKI contributes to acute lung injury by reducing endogenous antioxidative capacity and increasing oxidative damage in the lung. αKlotho replacement partially reversed these abnormalities and mitigated pulmonary complications in AKI.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Mingjun Shi, Jianning Zhang, Tayo Addo, Han Ju Cho, Sarah L Barker, Priya Ravikumar, Nancy Gillings, Ao Bian, Sachdev S Sidhu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 27 (1) 79 - 90 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    αKlotho is a multifunctional protein highly expressed in the kidney. Soluble αKlotho is released through cleavage of the extracellular domain from membrane αKlotho by secretases to function as an endocrine/paracrine substance. The role of the kidney in circulating αKlotho production and handling is incompletely understood, however. Here, we found higher αKlotho concentration in suprarenal compared with infrarenal inferior vena cava in both rats and humans. In rats, serum αKlotho concentration dropped precipitously after bilateral nephrectomy or upon treatment with inhibitors of αKlotho extracellular domain shedding. Furthermore, the serum half-life of exogenous αKlotho in anephric rats was four- to five-fold longer than that in normal rats, and exogenously injected labeled recombinant αKlotho was detected in the kidney and in urine of rats. Both in vivo (micropuncture) and in vitro (proximal tubule cell line) studies showed that αKlotho traffics from the basal to the apical side of the proximal tubule via transcytosis. Thus, we conclude that the kidney has dual roles in αKlotho homeostasis, producing and releasing αKlotho into the circulation and clearing αKlotho from the blood into the urinary lumen.
  • Christina B Leibrock, Ioana Alesutan, Jakob Voelkl, Diana Michael, Tatsiana Castor, Ursula Kohlhofer, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Laura Kübler, Julia G Mannheim, Bernd J Pichler, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-o, Florian Lang
    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 94 (1) 95 - 106 2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    UNLABELLED: Klotho, a protein expressed mainly in the kidney, is required for the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on renal 1,25(OH)2D3 formation. Klotho counteracts vascular calcification and diverse age-related disorders. Klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) suffer from severe vascular calcification and rapid aging. The calcification is at least in part caused by excessive 1,25(OH)2D3, Ca(2+), and phosphate concentrations in blood, which trigger osteogenic signaling including upregulation of alkaline phosphatase (Alpl). As precipitation of calcium and phosphate is fostered by alkaline pH, extracellular acidosis could counteract tissue calcification. In order to induce acidosis, acetazolamide was added to drinking water (0.8 g/l) of kl/kl and wild-type mice. As a result, acetazolamide treatment of kl/kl mice partially reversed the growth deficit, tripled the life span, almost completely reversed the calcifications in trachea, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, and vascular tissues, the excessive aortic alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels and the plasma concentrations of osteoprotegerin, osteopontin as well as fetuin-A, without significantly decreasing FGF23, 1,25(OH)2D3, Ca(2+), and phosphate plasma concentrations. In primary human aortic smooth muscle cells, acidotic environment prevented phosphate-induced alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression. The present study reveals a completely novel effect of acetazolamide, i.e., interference with osteoinductive signaling and tissue calcification in kl/kl mice. KEY MESSAGES: Klotho deficient (kl/kl) mice suffer from hyperphosphatemia with dramatic tissue calcification. Acetazolamide (ACM) treatment partially reversed the growth deficit of kl/kl mice. In kl/kl mice, ACM reversed tissue calcification despite continued hyperphosphatemia. ACM tripled the life span of kl/kl mice. In human aortic smooth muscle cells, low extracellular pH prevented osteogenic signaling.
  • Christina B Leibrock, Jakob Voelkl, Ursula Kohlhofer, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Makoto Kuro-O, Florian Lang
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 310 (1) F102-8  2016/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho, a protein counteracting aging, is a powerful inhibitor of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] formation and regulator of mineral metabolism. In klotho hypomorphic (kl/kl) mice, excessive 1,25(OH)2D3 formation leads to hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification, severe growth deficits, accelerated aging and early death. Kl/kl mice further suffer from extracellular volume depletion and hypotension, leading to the stimulation of antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone release. A vitamin D-deficient diet, restriction of dietary phosphate, inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptors with spironolactone, and dietary NaCl all extend the lifespan of kl/kl mice. Kl/kl mice suffer from acidosis. The present study explored whether replacement of tap drinking water by 150 mM NaHCO3 affects the growth, tissue calcification, and lifespan of kl/kl mice. As a result, NaHCO3 administration to kl/kl mice did not reverse the growth deficit but substantially decreased tissue calcification and significantly increased the average lifespan from 78 to 127 days. NaHCO3 did not significantly affect plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca(2+) but significantly decreased plasma phosphate concentration and plasma aldosterone concentration. The present study reveals a novel effect of bicarbonate, i.e., a favorable influence on vascular calcification and early death of klotho-deficient mice.
  • Christina B Leibrock, Martina Feger, Jakob Voelkl, Ursula Kohlhofer, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Makoto Kuro-o, Florian Lang
    Kidney & blood pressure research 41 (1) 99 - 107 2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Klotho is required for the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on 1,25(OH)2D3 formation and Klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) suffer from severe tissue calcification due to excessive 1,25(OH)2D3 formation with subsequent increase of Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations and stimulation of osteogenic signaling. The excessive tissue calcification dramatically accelerates aging and leads to premature death of the animals. Osteogenic signaling in those mice is disrupted by treatment with NH4Cl, which prevents tissue calcification and early death of kl/kl mice. The present study explored whether the beneficial effects of NH4Cl treatment could be mimicked by NH4NO3 treatment. METHODS: The kl/kl mice had free access to tap water either without or with addition of NH4NO3 (0.28 M) starting with the mating of the parental generation. Calcification of trachea, lung, kidney, stomach, heart and vessels was visualized by histology with von Kossa staining. Plasma phosphate concentration was determined utilizing photometry, blood gas and electrolytes utilizing a blood Gas and Chemistry Analysis System and plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 concentration with ELISA. RESULTS: In untreated kl/kl mice plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 and phosphate concentrations were elevated, and the mice suffered from marked calcification of all tissues analyzed. Untreated kl/kl mice further suffered from respiratory acidosis due to marked lung emphysema. NH4NO3-treatment decreased both, blood pCO2 and HCO3-, decreased calcification of trachea, lung, kidney, stomach, heart and vessels and increased the life span of kl/kl mice more than 1.7-fold (♂) or 1.6-fold (♀) without significantly affecting extracellular pH or plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3, Ca2+, phosphate, Na+, and K+. CONCLUSIONS: NH4NO3-treatment turns respiratory acidosis into metabolic acidosis and mitigates calcification thus leading to a substantial extension of kl/kl mice survival.
  • Zhong-Jian Shen, Jie Hu, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Makoto Kuro-o, James S Malter
    PloS one 11 (2) e0150093  2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis is a common, destructive endpoint for a variety of kidney diseases. Fibrosis is well correlated with the loss of kidney function in both humans and rodents. The identification of modulators of fibrosis could provide novel therapeutic approaches to reducing disease progression or severity. Here, we show that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is an important molecular contributor that facilitates renal fibrosis in a well-characterized animal model. While wild-type mice fed a high phosphate diet (HPD) for 8-12 weeks developed calcium deposition, macrophage infiltration and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in the kidney interstitium, Pin1 null mice showed significantly less pathology. The serum Pi in both WT and KO mice were significantly increased by the HPD, but the serum Ca was slightly decreased in KO compared to WT. In addition, both WT and KO HPD mice had less weight gain but exhibited normal organ mass (kidney, lung, spleen, liver and heart). Unexpectedly, renal function was not initially impaired in either genotype irrespective of the HPD. Our results suggest that diet containing high Pi induces rapid renal fibrosis before a significant impact on renal function and that Pin1 plays an important role in the fibrotic process.
  • Hodaka Yamada, Makoto Kuro-O, Kazuo Hara, Yuichiro Ueda, Ikuyo Kusaka, Masafumi Kakei, San-E Ishikawa
    PloS one 11 (8) e0160782  2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates mineral homeostasis. In developed renal dysfunction, FGF23 levels increase to maintain the phosphate excretion capacity. However, in diabetic patients with early-stage renal impairment, the FGF23 elevation is not very sensitive. We hypothesized that urinary phosphate (U-P)/serum FGF23 ratio would theoretically be an index that reflects the number of nephrons (nephron index). In this study, we determined whether the nephron index would be associated with renal function and vascular diseases in diabetic patients. METHODS: In total, 142 patients with diabetes mellitus were enrolled. The nephron index was calculated using the following formula: U-P (mg/day)/ serum FGF23 (pg/ml). RESULTS: The mean age was 63 ± 11 years and eGFR levels were 79.5 ± 25.4 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Thirty patients had a medical history of macroangiopathy. The Nephron index was significantly decreased in subjects with macroangiopathy compared with those without macroangiopathy. A multivariate analysis of risk factors for macroangiopathy revealed that duration of diabetes, eGFR, and nephron index were significantly associated with a higher frequency of arteriosclerotic disease. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a decrease in nephron index reflects early-stage renal impairment and is an independent risk factor of macroangiopathy in diabetic patients.
  • Jun Tanno, Yodo Gatate, Takatoshi Kasai, Shintaro Nakano, Takaaki Senbonmatsu, Osamu Sato, Shigeru Ichioka, Makoto Kuro-O, Shigeyuki Nishimura
    PloS one 11 (10) e0164756  2016 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities, the presence of flow-limiting stenoses can be objectively detected by the ankle-brachial index (ABI). However, the severity of ischemic symptoms is not necessarily associated with the ABI value. Atherosclerotic plaque in lower extremity PAD induces ankle arterial stiffness and reduces ankle vascular resistance, which may decrease ankle blood flow and cause ischemic symptoms. We hypothesized that the ankle hemodynamic index (AHI), defined as the ratio of ankle arterial stiffness to ankle vascular resistance, could be used to assess the blood supply deficiency in a diseased lower limb in patients with PAD. The 85 consecutive patients with PAD who were retrospectively analyzed in this study had Rutherford grade 1 to grade 6 ischemia diagnosed as PAD and significant stenotic lesions (>50% diameter stenosis) of the lower extremity on contrast angiography. The AHI was calculated as the product of the ankle pulse pressure and the ratio of heart rate to ankle mean arterial pressure (ankle pulse pressure × heart rate/ankle mean arterial pressure). The Rutherford grade was significantly correlated with the AHI (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), but not with the ABI (r = 0.07, P = 0.52). Multiple ordinal regression analysis showed that anemia (odds ratio 0.66, P = 0.002) and AHI (odds ratio 1.04, P = 0.02) were independently associated with Rutherford grade. Our study shows that AHI, a novel parameter based on the ABI measurement, is well correlated with ischemic symptoms, and may be a useful means to assess the arterial blood supply of the lower extremities of patients with PAD.
  • Daisuke Koyama, Yu Sato, Masato Aizawa, Takumi Maki, Masaki Kurosawa, Makoto Kuro-o, Yusuke Furukawa
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 467 (4) 1019 - 25 2015/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Although the Klotho gene has been recognized as an aging-suppressor gene, the significance of its soluble product, soluble αKlotho (sKlotho), in aging remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we conducted a single-centered cross-sectional study in a region with a high prevalence of aging. We compared sKlotho levels with the patient characteristics from medical records and laboratory measurements, including fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), intact parathyroid hormone, activated vitamin D3 and factors associated with mineral bone metabolism, in 52 outpatients with a mean age of 78.2 years. Serum sKlotho levels significantly decreased with age, but were not associated with the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum FGF23 levels increased as CKD stages advanced, but were not associated with aging. Univariate analyses revealed that sKlotho levels positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and negatively with age and serum levels of FGF23 and phosphorus. In a multivariable linear regression analysis, sKlotho significantly correlated with aging and lower FGF23 levels. Only osteoporosis affected sKlotho and FGF23 levels among the various complications and patient status including medication. In summary, serum sKlotho levels inversely correlated with age and FGF23, and were significantly reduced in patients with osteoporosis. sKlotho may serve as a biomarker of aging independent of renal function.
  • Masashi Masuda, Shinobu Miyazaki-Anzai, Audrey L Keenan, Kayo Okamura, Jessica Kendrick, Michel Chonchol, Stefan Offermanns, James M Ntambi, Makoto Kuro-O, Makoto Miyazaki
    The Journal of clinical investigation 125 (12) 4544 - 58 2015/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acid-induced (SFA-induced) lipotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie SFA-induced lipotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we have shown that repression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzymes, which regulate the intracellular balance of SFAs and unsaturated FAs, and the subsequent accumulation of SFAs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), are characteristic events in the development of vascular calcification. We evaluated whether SMC-specific inhibition of SCD and the resulting SFA accumulation plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and generated mice with SMC-specific deletion of both Scd1 and Scd2. Mice lacking both SCD1 and SCD2 in SMCs displayed severe vascular calcification with increased ER stress. Moreover, we employed shRNA library screening and radiolabeling approaches, as well as in vitro and in vivo lipidomic analysis, and determined that fully saturated phosphatidic acids such as 1,2-distearoyl-PA (18:0/18:0-PA) mediate SFA-induced lipotoxicity and vascular calcification. Together, these results identify a key lipogenic pathway in SMCs that mediates vascular calcification.
  • Christina B Leibrock, Ioana Alesutan, Jakob Voelkl, Tatsiana Pakladok, Diana Michael, Erwin Schleicher, Zahra Kamyabi-Moghaddam, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Makoto Kuro-o, Florian Lang
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 26 (10) 2423 - 33 2015/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho, a cofactor in suppressing 1,25(OH)2D3 formation, is a powerful regulator of mineral metabolism. Klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl) exhibit excessive plasma 1,25(OH)2D3, Ca(2+), and phosphate concentrations, severe tissue calcification, volume depletion with hyperaldosteronism, and early death. Calcification is paralleled by overexpression of osteoinductive transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, Alpl, and senescence-associated molecules Tgfb1, Pai-1, p21, and Glb1. Here, we show that NH4Cl treatment in drinking water (0.28 M) prevented soft tissue and vascular calcification and increased the life span of kl/kl mice >12-fold in males and >4-fold in females without significantly affecting extracellular pH or plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3, Ca(2+), and phosphate. NH4Cl treatment significantly decreased plasma aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone concentrations and reversed the increase of Runx2/Cbfa1, Alpl, Tgfb1, Pai-1, p21, and Glb1 expression in aorta of kl/kl mice. Similarly, in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs), NH4Cl treatment reduced phosphate-induced mRNA expression of RUNX2/CBFA1, ALPL, and senescence-associated molecules. In both kl/kl mice and phosphate-treated HAoSMCs, levels of osmosensitive transcription factor NFAT5 and NFAT5-downstream mediator SOX9 were higher than in controls and decreased after NH4Cl treatment. Overexpression of NFAT5 in HAoSMCs mimicked the effect of phosphate and abrogated the effect of NH4Cl on SOX9, RUNX2/CBFA1, and ALPL mRNA expression. TGFB1 treatment of HAoSMCs upregulated NFAT5 expression and prevented the decrease of phosphate-induced NFAT5 expression after NH4Cl treatment. In conclusion, NH4Cl treatment prevents tissue calcification, reduces vascular senescence, and extends survival of klotho-hypomorphic mice. The effects of NH4Cl on vascular osteoinduction involve decrease of TGFB1 and inhibition of NFAT5-dependent osteochondrogenic signaling.
  • L Jiang, L Xiao, H Sugiura, X Huang, A Ali, M Kuro-o, R J Deberardinis, D A Boothman
    Oncogene 34 (30) 3908 - 16 2015/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Metastatic progression, including extravasation and micrometastatic outgrowth, is the main cause of cancer patient death. Recent studies suggest that cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to support increased proliferation through increased glycolysis and biosynthetic activities, including lipogenesis pathways. However, metabolic changes during metastatic progression, including alterations in regulatory gene expression, remain undefined. We show that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is accompanied by coordinately reduced enzyme expression required to convert glucose into fatty acids, and concomitant enhanced respiration. Overexpressed Snail1, a transcription factor mediating TGFβ1-induced EMT, was sufficient to suppress carbohydrate-responsive-element-binding protein (ChREBP, a master lipogenic regulator), and fatty acid synthase (FASN), its effector lipogenic gene. Stable FASN knockdown was sufficient to induce EMT, stimulate migration and extravasation in vitro. FASN silencing enhanced lung metastasis and death in vivo. These data suggest that a metabolic transition that suppresses lipogenesis and favors energy production is an essential component of TGFβ1-induced EMT and metastasis.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Mingjun Shi, Han Jun Cho, Beverley Adams-Huet, Jean Paek, Kathy Hill, John Shelton, Ansel P Amaral, Christian Faul, Masatomo Taniguchi, Myles Wolf, Markus Brand, Masaya Takahashi, Makoto Kuro-O, Joseph A Hill, Orson W Moe
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 26 (6) 1290 - 302 2015/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Cardiac dysfunction in CKD is characterized by aberrant cardiac remodeling with hypertrophy and fibrosis. CKD is a state of severe systemic Klotho deficiency, and restoration of Klotho attenuates vascular calcification associated with CKD. We examined the role of Klotho in cardiac remodeling in models of Klotho deficiency-genetic Klotho hypomorphism, high dietary phosphate intake, aging, and CKD. Klotho-deficient mice exhibited cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy before 12 weeks of age followed by fibrosis. In wild-type mice, the induction of CKD led to severe cardiovascular changes not observed in control mice. Notably, non-CKD mice fed a high-phosphate diet had lower Klotho levels and greatly accelerated cardiac remodeling associated with normal aging compared with those on a normal diet. Chronic elevation of circulating Klotho because of global overexpression alleviated the cardiac remodeling induced by either high-phosphate diet or CKD. Regardless of the cause of Klotho deficiency, the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis correlated tightly with plasma phosphate concentration and inversely with plasma Klotho concentration, even when adjusted for all other covariables. High-fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration positively correlated with cardiac remodeling in a Klotho-deficient state but not a Klotho-replete state. In vitro, Klotho inhibited TGF-β1-, angiotensin II-, or high phosphate-induced fibrosis and abolished TGF-β1- or angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, Klotho deficiency is a novel intermediate mediator of pathologic cardiac remodeling, and fibroblast growth factor-23 may contribute to cardiac remodeling in concert with Klotho deficiency in CKD, phosphotoxicity, and aging.
  • Jian Xie, Joonho Yoon, Sung-Wan An, Makoto Kuro-o, Chou-Long Huang
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 26 (5) 1150 - 60 2015/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in up to 95% of patients with CKD and increases their risk for cardiovascular death. In the kidney, full-length membranous Klotho forms the coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to regulate phosphate metabolism. The prevailing view is that the decreased level of Klotho in CKD causes cardiomyopathy through increases in serum FGF23 and/or phosphate levels. However, we reported recently that soluble Klotho protects against cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting abnormal calcium signaling in the heart. Here, we tested whether this protective effect requires changes in FGF23 and/or phosphate levels. Heterozygous Klotho-deficient CKD mice exhibited aggravated cardiac hypertrophy compared with wild-type CKD mice. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that Klotho-deficient CKD hearts had worse functional impairment than wild-type CKD hearts. Normalization of serum phosphate and FGF23 levels by dietary phosphate restriction did not abrogate the aggravated cardiac hypertrophy observed in Klotho-deficient CKD mice. Circulating levels of the cleaved soluble ectodomain of Klotho were lower in wild-type CKD mice than in control mice and even lower in Klotho-deficient CKD mice. Intravenous delivery of a transgene encoding soluble Klotho ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy in Klotho-deficient CKD mice. These results suggest that the decreased level of circulating soluble Klotho in CKD is an important cause of uremic cardiomyopathy independent of FGF23 and phosphate, opening new avenues for treatment of this disease.
  • Evi Schmid, Jing Yan, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad Almilaji, Ekaterina Shumilina, Makoto Kuro-o, Oliver Borst, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 460 (2) 177 - 82 2015/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)₂D₃, is a powerful regulator of cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a variety of cell types. The formation of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ is inhibited by FGF23, an effect requiring presence of klotho. 1,25(OH)₂D₃ plasma levels are excessive in klotho-deficient mice (kl/kl). A previous study revealed that klotho-deficiency is followed by decreased activation of platelets, an effect at least in part due to blunted store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). In other cell types 1,25(OH)₂D₃ has been shown to up-regulate the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger, which could, depending on cell membrane potential and cytosolic Na(+) concentration, either decrease or increase [Ca(2+)]i. The present study explored whether Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity is different in megakaryocytes isolated from kl/kl mice than in megakaryocytes isolated from wild type mice. Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger induced currents were determined by whole cell patch clamp and the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger induced alterations of [Ca(2+)]i by Fura-2 fluorescence. As a result, the inward current and the increase of [Ca(2+)]i following replacement of extracellular Na(+) by NMDG were higher in kl/kl megakaryocytes than in wild type megakaryocytes, a difference abrogated by treatment of the mice with low Vitamin D diet. Pretreatment of wild type megakaryocytes with 1,25(OH)₂D₃ (100 nM, 48 h) was followed by enhancement of both, inward current and increase of [Ca(2+)]i following replacement of extracellular Na(+) by NMDG. In conclusion, the present observations reveal a powerful stimulating effect of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ on Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity in megakaryocytes.
  • Dena B Dubal, Lei Zhu, Pascal E Sanchez, Kurtresha Worden, Lauren Broestl, Erik Johnson, Kaitlyn Ho, Gui-Qiu Yu, Daniel Kim, Alexander Betourne, Makoto Kuro-O, Eliezer Masliah, Carmela R Abraham, Lennart Mucke
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 (6) 2358 - 71 2015/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Aging is the principal demographic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Klotho is a key modulator of the aging process and, when overexpressed, extends mammalian lifespan, increases synaptic plasticity, and enhances cognition. Whether klotho can counteract deficits related to neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, is unknown. Here we show that elevating klotho expression decreases premature mortality and network dysfunction in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD. Increasing klotho levels prevented depletion of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits in the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning and memory in hAPP mice. Klotho elevation in hAPP mice increased the abundance of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in postsynaptic densities and NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation, which is critical for learning and memory. Thus, increasing wild-type klotho levels or activities improves synaptic and cognitive functions, and may be of therapeutic benefit in AD and other cognitive disorders.
  • Sarah L Barker, Johanne Pastor, Danielle Carranza, Henry Quiñones, Carolyn Griffith, Regina Goetz, Moosa Mohammadi, Jianfeng Ye, Jianning Zhang, Ming Chang Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe, Sachdev S Sidhu
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 30 (2) 223 - 33 2015/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: αKlotho is the prototypic member of the Klotho family and is most highly expressed in the kidney. αKlotho has pleiotropic biologic effects, and in the kidney, its actions include regulation of ion transport, cytoprotection, anti-oxidation and anti-fibrosis. In rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD), αKlotho deficiency has been shown to be an early biomarker as well as a pathogenic factor. The database for αKlotho in human CKD remains controversial even after years of study. METHODS: We used a synthetic antibody library to identify a high-affinity human antigen-binding fragment that recognizes human, rat and mouse αKlotho primarily in its native, rather than denatured, form. RESULTS: Using an immunoprecipitation-immunoblot (IP-IB) assay, we measured both serum and urinary levels of full-length soluble αKlotho in humans and established that human CKD is associated with αKlotho deficiency in serum and urine. αKlotho levels were detectably lower in early CKD preceding disturbances in other parameters of mineral metabolism and progressively declined with CKD stages. We also found that exogenously added αKlotho is inherently unstable in the CKD milieu suggesting that decreased production may not be the sole reason for αKlotho deficiency. CONCLUSION: Synthetic antibody libraries harbor tremendous potential for a variety of biomedical and clinical applications. Using such a reagent, we furnish data in support of αKlotho deficiency in human CKD, and we set the foundation for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications of anti-αKlotho antibodies.
  • Meng-Yun Chen, Rong-Li Mao, Dan Liang, Masaki Kuro-o, Xiao-Mao Zeng, Peng Zhang
    Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 83 1 - 6 2015/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Although several recent studies have investigated the major phylogenetic relationships within Hynobiidae, their evolutionary history remains partially resolved and the phylogenetic positions of some genera, particularly Pachyhynobius and Salamandrella are still disputed. Notably, previous studies relied primarily on mitochondrial DNA data and concatenated analyses; thus, a new investigation based on multiple nuclear genes and species-tree inference is needed. Here, we provide an in-depth phylogenetic analysis, based on 29 nuclear genes comprising 29,232bp of data from a comprehensive taxonomic sampling (24 hynobiids and 7 outgroups), using both concatenated and species-tree methods. Our results robustly resolved most genus-level relationships within Hynobiidae, including the placement of Salamandrella as the sister group to a clade containing Batrachuperus, Liua and Pseudohynobius, and the placement of Pachyhynobius as the sister group to a clade containing all hynobiids excluding Onychodactylus, Paradactylodon and Ranodon. Time estimates based on our data suggest that the major group of living hynobiids (excluding Onychodactylus) originated approximately 40Ma, ∼50% younger than estimates from mtDNA data (62.5Ma) but 10% older than estimates from three nuclear genes (36Ma). Our results highlight the benefits of using a large number of nuclear loci to infer both phylogeny and time for relatively old lineages.
  • Reynolds K Brobey, Dwight German, Patricia K Sonsalla, Prem Gurnani, Johanne Pastor, C-C Hsieh, John Papaconstantinou, Philip P Foster, Makoto Kuro-o, Kevin P Rosenblatt
    PloS one 10 (10) e0139914  2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho transgenic mice exhibit resistance to oxidative stress as measured by their urinal levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, albeit this anti-oxidant defense mechanism has not been locally investigated in the brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/p38 MAPK pathway regulates stress levels in the brain of these mice and showed that: 1) the ratio of free ASK1 to thioredoxin (Trx)-bound ASK1 is relatively lower in the transgenic brain whereas the reverse is true for the Klotho knockout mice; 2) the reduced p38 activation level in the transgene corresponds to higher level of ASK1-bound Trx, while the KO mice showed elevated p38 activation and lower level of-bound Trx; and 3) that 14-3-3ζ is hyper phosphorylated (Ser-58) in the transgene which correlated with increased monomer forms. In addition, we evaluated the in vivo robustness of the protection by challenging the brains of Klotho transgenic mice with a neurotoxin, MPTP and analyzed for residual neuron numbers and integrity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results show that Klotho overexpression significantly protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative damage, partly by modulating p38 MAPK activation level. Our data highlight the importance of ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway in the brain and identify Klotho as a possible anti-oxidant effector.
  • Reynolds K Brobey, Mehdi Dheghani, Philip P Foster, Makoto Kuro-O, Kevin P Rosenblatt
    PloS one 10 (10) e0141968  2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) signaling complex is a key regulator of p38 MAPK activity, a major modulator of stress-associated with aging disorders. We recently reported that the ratio of free ASK1 to the complex-bound ASK1 is significantly decreased in Klotho-responsive manner and that Klotho-deficient tissues have elevated levels of free ASK1 which coincides with increased oxidative stress. Here, we tested the hypothesis that: 1) covalent interactions exist among three identified proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex; 2) in normal unstressed cells the ASK1, 14-3-3ζ and thioredoxin (Trx) proteins simultaneously engage in a tripartite complex formation; 3) Klotho's stabilizing effect on the complex relied solely on 14-3-3ζ expression and its apparent phosphorylation and dimerization changes. To verify the hypothesis, we performed 14-3-3ζ siRNA knock-down experiments in conjunction with cell-based assays to measure ASK1-client protein interactions in the presence and absence of Klotho, and with or without an oxidant such as rotenone. Our results show that Klotho activity induces posttranslational modifications in the complex targeting 14-3-3ζ monomer/dimer changes to effectively protect against ASK1 oxidation and dissociation. This is the first observation implicating all three proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex in close proximity.
  • Naoko Otani-Takei, Takahiro Masuda, Tetsu Akimoto, Sumiko Honma, Yuko Watanabe, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Takuya Miki, Eiji Kusano, Yasushi Asano, Makoto Kuro-O, Daisuke Nagata
    International journal of endocrinology 2015 406269 - 406269 2015 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in the kidney. The extracellular domain of Klotho is subject to ectodomain shedding and is released into the circulation as a soluble form. Soluble Klotho is also generated from alternative splicing of the Klotho gene. In mice, defects in Klotho expression lead to complex phenotypes resembling those observed in dialysis patients. However, the relationship between the level of serum soluble Klotho and overall survival in hemodialysis patients, who exhibit a state of Klotho deficiency, remains to be delineated. Here we prospectively followed a cohort of 63 patients with a mean duration of chronic hemodialysis of 6.7 ± 5.4 years for a median of 65 months. Serum soluble Klotho was detectable in all patients (median 371 pg/mL, interquartile range 309-449). Patients with serum soluble Klotho levels below the lower quartile (<309 pg/mL) had significantly higher cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates. Furthermore, the higher all-cause mortality persisted even after adjustment for confounders (hazard ratio 4.14, confidence interval 1.29-13.48). We conclude that there may be a threshold for the serum soluble Klotho level associated with a higher risk of mortality.
  • Priya Ravikumar, Jianfeng Ye, Jianning Zhang, Sydney N Pinch, Ming Chang Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Connie C W Hsia, Orson W Moe
    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 307 (7) L566-75  2014/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    α-Klotho exerts pleiotropic biological actions. Heterozygous α-Klotho haplo-insufficient mice (kl/+) appear normal at baseline except for age-related changes in the lung, suggesting heightened pulmonary susceptibility to α-Klotho deficiency. We used in vivo and in vitro models to test whether α-Klotho protects lung epithelia against injury. Normally, α-Klotho is not expressed in the lung, but circulating α-Klotho levels are reduced -40% in kl/+ mice and undetectable in homozygous α-Klotho-deficient mice (kl/kl). kl/+ mice show distal air space enlargement at a given airway pressure, with elevated lung oxidative damage marker (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG); these abnormalities are exacerbated in kl/kl mice. Studies were performed in A549 lung epithelial cells and/or primary culture of alveolar epithelial cells. Hyperoxia (95% O2) and high inorganic phosphate concentrations (Pi, 3-5 mM) additively caused cell injury (lactate dehydrogenase release), oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), lipid oxidation (8-isoprostane), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and apoptosis (caspase-8 activity and TUNEL stain). Transfection of transmembrane or soluble α-Klotho, or addition of soluble α-Klotho-containing conditioned media, increased cellular antioxidant capacity (Cu- and Fe-based assays) via increased nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1/2) transcriptional activity and ameliorated hyperoxic and phosphotoxic injury. To validate the findings in vivo, we injected α-Klotho-containing conditioned media into rat peritoneum before and during hyperoxia exposure and found reduced alveolar interstitial edema and oxidative damage. We conclude that circulating α-Klotho protects the lung against oxidative damage and apoptosis partly via increasing endogenous antioxidative capacity in pulmonary epithelia. Cytoprotection by α-Klotho may play an important role in degenerative diseases of the lung.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 4 23 (4) 331 - 9 1062-4821 2014/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease remains the single most serious contributor to mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although conventional risk factors are prevalent in CKD, both cardiomyopathy and vasculopathy can be caused by pathophysiologic mechanisms specific to the uremic state. CKD is a state of systemic αKlotho deficiency. Although the molecular mechanism of action of αKlotho is not well understood, the downstream targets and biologic functions of αKlotho are astonishingly pleiotropic. An emerging body of literature links αKlotho to uremic vasculopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: The expression of αKlotho in the vasculature is controversial because of conflicting data. Regardless of whether αKlotho acts as a circulating or resident protein, there are good data associating changes in αKlotho levels with vascular pathology including vascular calcification and in-vitro data of the direct action of αKlotho on both the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells in terms of cytoprotection and prevention of mineralization. SUMMARY: It is critical to understand the pathogenic role of αKlotho on the integral endothelium-vascular smooth muscle network rather than each cell type in isolation in uremic vasculopathy, as αKlotho can serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and a biological therapeutic agent.
  • Dena B Dubal, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Lei Zhu, Lauren Broestl, Kurtresha Worden, Dan Wang, Virginia E Sturm, Daniel Kim, Eric Klein, Gui-Qiu Yu, Kaitlyn Ho, Kirsten E Eilertson, Lei Yu, Makoto Kuro-o, Philip L De Jager, Giovanni Coppola, Gary W Small, David A Bennett, Joel H Kramer, Carmela R Abraham, Bruce L Miller, Lennart Mucke
    Cell reports 4 7 (4) 1065 - 76 2014/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Aging is the primary risk factor for cognitive decline, an emerging health threat to aging societies worldwide. Whether anti-aging factors such as klotho can counteract cognitive decline is unknown. We show that a lifespan-extending variant of the human KLOTHO gene, KL-VS, is associated with enhanced cognition in heterozygous carriers. Because this allele increased klotho levels in serum, we analyzed transgenic mice with systemic overexpression of klotho. They performed better than controls in multiple tests of learning and memory. Elevating klotho in mice also enhanced long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and enriched synaptic GluN2B, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit with key functions in learning and memory. Blockade of GluN2B abolished klotho-mediated effects. Surprisingly, klotho effects were evident also in young mice and did not correlate with age in humans, suggesting independence from the aging process. Augmenting klotho or its effects may enhance cognition and counteract cognitive deficits at different life stages.
  • Oliver Borst, Patrick Münzer, Evi Schmid, Eva-Maria Schmidt, Antonella Russo, Britta Walker, Wenting Yang, Christina Leibrock, Kalina Szteyn, Sebastian Schmidt, Margitta Elvers, Caterina Faggio, Ekaterina Shumilina, Makoto Kuro-o, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 5 28 (5) 2108 - 19 0892-6638 2014/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Platelets are activated by increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) following store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) accomplished by calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel moiety Orai1 and its regulator STIM1. In other cells, Ca(2+) transport is regulated by 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. 1,25(OH)2D3 formation is inhibited by klotho and excessive in klotho-deficient mice (kl/kl). The present study explored the effect of klotho deficiency on platelet Ca(2+) signaling and activation. Platelets and megakaryocytes isolated from WT and kl/kl-mice were analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting, confocal microscopy, Fura-2-fluorescence, patch clamp, flow cytometry, aggregometry, and flow chamber. STIM1/Orai1 transcript and protein levels, SOCE, agonist-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase, activation-dependent degranulation, integrin αIIbβ3 activation and aggregation, and thrombus formation were significantly blunted in kl/kl platelets (by 27-90%). STIM1/Orai1 transcript and protein levels, as well as CRAC currents, were significantly reduced in kl/kl megakaryocytes (by 38-73%) and 1,25(OH)2D3-treated WT megakaryocytes. Nuclear NF-κB subunit p50/p65 abundance was significantly reduced in kl/kl-megakaryocytes (by 51-76%). Transfection with p50/p65 significantly increased STIM1/Orai1 transcript and protein levels in megakaryocytic MEG-01 cells (by 46-97%). Low-vitamin D diet (LVD) of kl/kl mice normalized plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 concentration and function of platelets and megakaryocytes. Klotho deficiency inhibits platelet Ca(2+) signaling and activation, an effect at least partially due to 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent down-regulation of NF-κB activity and STIM1/Orai1 expression in megakaryocytes.
  • Orson W Moe, Makoto Kuro-o
    Kidney international 5 85 (5) 1022 - 3 0085-2538 2014/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Although epidemiologic associations have been informative, the elucidation of the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires testing with robust experimental models. Jimbo et al. used animal and cell-culture models to query whether FGF23 is a direct 'vasculotoxin.' We discuss the interpretation of their findings. At this juncture, much remains unanswered about the significance of FGF23 elevation in CKD.
  • Barbara Haenzi, Olivier Bonny, Régis Masson, Susanne Lienhard, Julien H Dey, Makoto Kuro-o, Nancy E Hynes
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1 28 (1) 327 - 36 0892-6638 2014/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Memo is a widely expressed 33-kDa protein required for heregulin (HRG)-, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-induced cell motility. Studies in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, wild-type or knockout for Memo, were performed to further investigate the role of Memo downstream of FGFR. We demonstrated that Memo associates with the FGFR signalosome and is necessary for optimal activation of signaling. To uncover Memo's physiological role, Memo conditional-knockout mice were generated. These animals showed a reduced life span, increased insulin sensitivity, small stature, graying hair, alopecia, kyphosis, loss of subcutaneous fat, and loss of spermatozoa in the epididymis. Memo-knockout mice also have elevated serum levels of active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D), and calcium compared to control littermates expressing Memo. In summary, the results from in vivo and in vitro models support the hypothesis that Memo is a novel regulator of FGFR signaling with a role in controlling 1,25(OH)2D production and normal calcium homeostasis.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 1 34 (1) 1 - 4 0211-6995 2014 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Kidney international supplements 3 (5) 420 - 426 2157-1724 2013/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Extracellular phosphate is toxic to the cell at high concentrations. When the phosphate level is increased in the blood by impaired urinary phosphate excretion, premature aging ensues. When the phosphate level is increased in the urine by dietary phosphate overload, this may lead to kidney damage (tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis). Extracellular phosphate exerts its cytotoxicity when it forms insoluble nanoparticles with calcium and fetuin-A, referred to as calciprotein particles (CPPs). CPPs are highly bioactive ligands that can induce various cellular responses, including osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cell death in vascular endothelium and renal tubular epithelium. CPPs are detected in the blood of animal models and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with adaptation of the endocrine axes mediated by fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho that regulate mineral metabolism and aging. These observations have raised the possibility that CPPs may contribute to the pathophysiology of CKD. This notion, if validated, is expected to provide new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for CKD.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Nature reviews. Nephrology 11 9 (11) 650 - 60 1759-5061 2013/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    High concentrations of extracellular phosphate are toxic to cells. Impaired urinary phosphate excretion increases serum phosphate level and induces a premature-ageing phenotype. Urinary phosphate levels are increased by dietary phosphate overload and might induce tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. Extracellular phosphate exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming insoluble nanoparticles with calcium and fetuin-A; these nanoparticles are referred to in this Review as calciprotein particles. Calciprotein particles are highly bioactive ligands that can induce various cellular responses, including the osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells and cell death of vascular endothelial cells and renal tubular epithelial cells. Calciprotein particles are detected in the serum of animal models of kidney disease and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and might be associated with a (mal)adaptation of the endocrine axes mediated by fibroblast growth factors and Klothos that regulate phosphate homeostasis and ageing. These observations raise the possibility that calciprotein particles contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. This theory, if verified, is expected to provide novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in CKD.
  • Yi Lin, Makoto Kuro-o, Zhongjie Sun
    Endocrinology 10 154 (10) 3855 - 63 0013-7227 2013/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a recently discovered anti-aging gene and is primarily expressed in kidneys. In humans, the klotho level decreases with age whereas the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases with age. Diabetic nephropathy is the most common form of CKD, which leads to end-stage renal disease. A decrease in klotho has been found in kidneys of patients with diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study is to assess whether klotho gene deficiency affects early diabetic nephropathy in a mouse of model of type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Male KL(+/-) mutant and wild-type mice (6-8 weeks) were injected with multiple low doses of STZ. Renal functions and renal blood flow were assessed. Kidneys were collected for histological examination and molecular assays of TGFβ1 and mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Klotho deficiency in KL(+/-) mutant mice exacerbated STZ-induced increases in urine albumin, blood urea nitrogen, expansion of mesangial matrix in renal glomeruli, and kidney hypertrophy, suggesting a protective role of klotho in kidney function and structure. Klotho deficiency did not affect renal blood flow. Notably, klotho deficiency significantly increased phosphorylation of Smad2, indicating enhanced TGFβ1 signaling in kidneys. Klotho deficiency also increased phosphorylation of mTOR and S6 (a downstream effector of mTOR), indicating enhanced mTOR signaling in kidneys of early diabetic mice. Thus, klotho gene deficiency may make kidneys more susceptible to diabetic injury. Klotho gene deficiency exacerbated early diabetic nephropathy via enhancing both TGFβ1 and mTOR signaling in kidneys.
  • Vijayababu M Radhakrishnan, Rajalakshmy Ramalingam, Claire B Larmonier, Robert D Thurston, Daniel Laubitz, Monica T Midura-Kiela, Rita-Marie T McFadden, Makoto Kuro-O, Pawel R Kiela, Fayez K Ghishan
    Gastroenterology 3 145 (3) 613 - 24 0016-5085 2013/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysregulated Ca(2+) homeostasis likely contributes to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease-associated loss of bone mineral density. Experimental colitis leads to decreased expression of Klotho, a protein that supports renal Ca(2+) reabsorption by stabilizing the transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) channel on the apical membrane of distal tubule epithelial cells. METHODS: Colitis was induced in mice via administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) or transfer of CD4(+)interleukin-10(-/-) and CD4(+), CD45RB(hi) T cells. We investigated changes in bone metabolism, renal processing of Ca(2+), and expression of TRPV5. RESULTS: Mice with colitis had normal serum levels of Ca(2+) and parathormone. Computed tomography analysis showed a decreased density of cortical and trabecular bone, and there was biochemical evidence for reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption. Increased fractional urinary excretion of Ca(2+) was accompanied by reduced levels of TRPV5 protein in distal convoluted tubules, with a concomitant increase in TRPV5 sialylation. In mouse renal intermedullary collecting duct epithelial (mIMCD3) cells transduced with TRPV5 adenovirus, the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, and interleukin-1β reduced levels of TRPV5 on the cell surface, leading to its degradation. Cytomix induced interaction between TRPV5 and UBR4 (Ubiquitin recoginition 4), an E3 ubiquitin ligase; knockdown of UBR4 with small interfering RNAs prevented cytomix-induced degradation of TRPV5. The effects of cytokines on TRPV5 were not observed in cells stably transfected with membrane-bound Klotho; TRPV5 expression was preserved when colitis was induced with TNBS in transgenic mice that overexpressed Klotho or in mice with T-cell transfer colitis injected with soluble recombinant Klotho. CONCLUSIONS: After induction of colitis in mice via TNBS administration or T-cell transfer, tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ reduced the expression and activity of Klotho, which otherwise would protect TRPV5 from hypersialylation and cytokine-induced TRPV5 endocytosis, UBR4-dependent ubiquitination, degradation, and urinary wasting of Ca(2+).
  • María Del Nogal-Ávila, Nuria Troyano-Suárez, Pablo Román-García, Jorge B Cannata-Andía, Manuel Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Makoto Kuro-O, María P Ruiz-Torres
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 7 45 (7) 1255 - 64 1357-2725 2013/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Activation of the insulin growth factor receptor-1 signaling pathways has been largely related to the aging process. Amadori products are produced in pathological conditions such as diabetes and aging, and are potentially involved in diabetic nephropathy or age-associated decline of renal function. We hypothesize that Amadori products induce senescence in primary human mesangial cells through the activation of IGF-1 receptor and investigate, in the present work, the intracellular mechanism involved after this activation. We treated cultured human mesangial cells with glycated albumin, one of the most abundant Amadori product, and senescence was assessed by determining the senescence associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21. We demonstrated that prolonged exposition (more than 24h) to glycated albumin induced senescence and, in parallel, incremented the release of IGF-1 and the activation of the IGF-1 receptor. Inhibition of the IGF-1 activation prevented the GA induced senescence. Activation of IGF-1R, after GA addition, promoted a reduction in the catalase content through the constitutive activation of Ras and erk1/2 proteins which were, in turn, responsible of the observed GA-induced senescence. In conclusion, we propose that the Amadori product, glycated albumin, promotes premature cell senescence in mesangial cells through the activation of the IGF-1 receptor and the subsequent reduction in the antioxidant enzyme catalase.
  • Ekaterina Shumilina, Meerim K Nurbaeva, Wenting Yang, Evi Schmid, Kalina Szteyn, Antonella Russo, Nicole Heise, Christina Leibrock, Nguyen Thi Xuan, Caterina Faggio, Makoto Kuro-o, Florian Lang
    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 1 305 (1) C70-7 - 7 0363-6143 2013/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The function of dendritic cells (DCs), antigen-presenting cells regulating naïve T-cells, is regulated by cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i). [Ca²⁺]i is increased by store-operated Ca²⁺ entry and decreased by K⁺-independent (NCX) and K⁺-dependent (NCKX) Na⁺/Ca²⁺ exchangers. NCKX exchangers are stimulated by immunosuppressive 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)₂D₃], the biologically active form of vitamin D. Formation of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ is inhibited by the antiaging protein Klotho. Thus 1,25(OH)₂D₃ plasma levels are excessive in Klotho-deficient mice (klothohm). The present study explored whether Klotho deficiency modifies [Ca²⁺]i regulation in DCs. DCs were isolated from the bone marrow of klothohm mice and wild-type mice (klotho+/+) and cultured for 7-9 days with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. According to major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) and CD86 expression, differentiation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maturation were similar in klothohm DCs and klotho+/+ DCs. However, NCKX1 membrane abundance and NCX/NCKX-activity were significantly enhanced in klothohm DCs. The [Ca²⁺]i increase upon acute application of LPS (1 μg/ml) was significantly lower in klothohm DCs than in klotho+/+ DCs, a difference reversed by the NCKX blocker 3',4'-dichlorobenzamyl (DBZ; 10 μM). CCL21-dependent migration was significantly less in klothohm DCs than in klotho+/+ DCs but could be restored by DBZ. NCKX activity was enhanced by pretreatment of klotho+/+ DC precursors with 1,25(OH)₂D₃ the first 2 days after isolation from bone marrow. Feeding klothohm mice a vitamin D-deficient diet decreased NCKX activity, augmented LPS-induced increase of [Ca²⁺]i, and enhanced migration of klothohm DCs, thus dissipating the differences between klothohm DCs and klotho+/+ DCs. In conclusion, Klotho deficiency upregulates NCKX1 membrane abundance and Na⁺/Ca²⁺-exchange activity, thus blunting the increase of [Ca²⁺]i following LPS exposure and CCL21-mediated migration. The effects are in large part due to excessive 1,25(OH)₂D₃ formation.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Seminars in nephrology 2 33 (2) 118 - 29 0270-9295 2013/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein highly expressed in the kidney. Membrane Klotho protein acts as a co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor-23. Its extracellular domain is shed from the cell surface and functions as an endocrine substance that exerts multiple renal and extrarenal functions. An exhaustive review is beyond the scope and length of this article; thus, only effects with pertinence to mineral metabolism and renoprotection are highlighted here. Klotho participates in mineral homeostasis via interplay with other calciophosphoregulatory hormones (parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23, and 1,25-[OH]2 vitamin D3) in kidney, bone, intestine, and parathyroid gland. Klotho also may be involved in acute and chronic kidney disease development and progression. Acute kidney injury is a temporary and reversible state of Klotho deficiency and chronic kidney disease is a sustained state of systemic Klotho deficiency. Klotho deficiency renders the kidney more susceptible to acute insults, delays kidney regeneration, and promotes renal fibrosis. In addition to direct renal effects, Klotho deficiency also triggers and aggravates deranged mineral metabolism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, vascular calcification, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Although studies examining the therapeutic effect of Klotho replacement were performed in animal models, it is quite conceivable that supplementation of exogenous Klotho and/or up-regulation of endogenous Klotho production may be a viable therapeutic strategy for patients with acute or chronic kidney diseases.
  • M Abed, S T Towhid, M Feger, S Schmidt, M Kuro-O, M Gawaz, F Lang
    Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) 207 (3) 485 - 93 2013/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    AIM: Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptotic erythrocytes may adhere to the vascular wall by binding of phosphatidylserine to endothelial CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16). Triggers of eryptosis include osmotic shock or energy depletion. Susceptibility to eryptosis is modified by Klotho, a protein with profound effect on ageing and lifespan. Klotho deficiency leads to accelerated ageing and early death. The percentage of eryptotic erythrocytes is significantly larger in klotho-deficient mice (klotho(-/-) ) than in their wild-type littermates (klotho(+/+) ). The present study explored whether the accelerated eryptosis of klotho-deficient mice is paralleled by enhanced adhesion. METHODS: Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes were identified by measurement of annexin V binding and adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from trapping of labelled erythrocytes in a flow chamber. RESULTS: Annexin V binding was higher in klotho(-/-) erythrocytes than in klotho(+/+) erythrocytes. Osmotic shock for 1 h (addition of 550 mm sucrose) and energy depletion (12-h glucose depletion) increased annexin V binding to values again significantly larger in klotho(-/-) erythrocytes than in klotho(+/+) erythrocytes. klotho(-/-) erythrocytes were particularly sensitive to osmotic shock. Both osmotic shock and energy depletion enhanced erythrocyte adhesion, an effect again more pronounced in klotho(-/-) erythrocytes than in klotho(+/+) erythrocytes. The adhesion was significantly decreased by coating of phospatidylserine with annexin V (5 μL mL(-1) ) or by coating of CXCL16 with neutralizing antibodies (4 μg mL(-1) ). CONCLUSIONS: klotho(-/-) erythrocytes are particularly sensitive to osmotic shock, and enhanced eryptosis of klotho(-/-) erythrocytes is paralleled by enhanced adhesion to endothelial CXCL16.
  • Jakob Voelkl, Ioana Alesutan, Christina B Leibrock, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Volker Kuhn, Martina Feger, Sobuj Mia, Mohamed S E Ahmed, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-O, Florian Lang
    The Journal of clinical investigation 2 123 (2) 812 - 22 0021-9738 2013/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a potent regulator of 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] formation and calcium-phosphate metabolism. Klotho-hypomorphic mice (kl/kl mice) suffer from severe growth deficits, rapid aging, hyperphosphatemia, hyperaldosteronism, and extensive vascular and soft tissue calcification. Sequelae of klotho deficiency are similar to those of end-stage renal disease. We show here that the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone reduced vascular and soft tissue calcification and increased the life span of kl/kl mice, without significant effects on 1,25(OH)2D3, FGF23, calcium, and phosphate plasma concentrations. Spironolactone also reduced the expression of osteoinductive Pit1 and Tnfa mRNA, osteogenic transcription factors, and alkaline phosphatase (Alpl) in calcified tissues of kl/kl mice. In human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs), aldosterone dose-dependently increased PIT1 mRNA expression, an effect paralleled by increased expression of osteogenic transcription factors and enhanced ALP activity. The effects of aldosterone were reversed by both spironolactone treatment and PIT1 silencing and were mitigated by FGF23 cotreatment in HAoSMCs. In conclusion, aldosterone contributes to vascular and soft tissue calcification, an effect due, at least in part, to stimulation of spironolactone-sensitive, PIT1-dependent osteoinductive signaling.
  • Ci-Di Chen, Jacob A Sloane, Hu Li, Nurgul Aytan, Eustathia L Giannaris, Ella Zeldich, Jason D Hinman, Alpaslan Dedeoglu, Douglas L Rosene, Rashmi Bansal, Jennifer I Luebke, Makoto Kuro-o, Carmela R Abraham
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 5 33 (5) 1927 - 39 0270-6474 2013/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We have previously shown that myelin abnormalities characterize the normal aging process of the brain and that an age-associated reduction in Klotho is conserved across species. Predominantly generated in brain and kidney, Klotho overexpression extends life span, whereas loss of Klotho accelerates the development of aging-like phenotypes. Although the function of Klotho in brain is unknown, loss of Klotho expression leads to cognitive deficits. We found significant effects of Klotho on oligodendrocyte functions, including induced maturation of rat primary oligodendrocytic progenitor cells (OPCs) in vitro and myelination. Phosphoprotein analysis indicated that Klotho's downstream effects involve Akt and ERK signal pathways. Klotho increased OPC maturation, and inhibition of Akt or ERK function blocked this effect on OPCs. In vivo studies of Klotho knock-out mice and control littermates revealed that knock-out mice have a significant reduction in major myelin protein and gene expression. By immunohistochemistry, the number of total and mature oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in Klotho knock-out mice. Strikingly, at the ultrastructural level, Klotho knock-out mice exhibited significantly impaired myelination of the optic nerve and corpus callosum. These mice also displayed severe abnormalities at the nodes of Ranvier. To decipher the mechanisms by which Klotho affects oligodendrocytes, we used luciferase pathway reporters to identify the transcription factors involved. Together, these studies provide novel evidence for Klotho as a key player in myelin biology, which may thus be a useful therapeutic target in efforts to protect brain myelin against age-dependent changes and promote repair in multiple sclerosis.
  • Tso-Hsiao Chen, Makoto Kuro-O, Cheng-Hsien Chen, Yuh-Mou Sue, Yen-Cheng Chen, Ho-Han Wu, Chung-Yi Cheng
    European journal of pharmacology 1-3 698 (1-3) 67 - 73 0014-2999 2013/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho was identified as the responsible gene in a mutant mouse line whose disruption results in a variety of premature aging-related phenotypes. Nonetheless, the related mechanisms were still unknown. Many studies report that dietary phosphate restriction and genetic ablation of vitamin D pathways indirectly reverse premature aging processes in these mice. Furthermore, transgenic overexpression of klotho in mice extends their life span through inhibition of insulin and IGF1 signaling. We found that intraperitoneal injection of recombinant soluble Klotho protein at dose of 0.02 mg/kg every other day effectively extends the life span of kl/kl mice by 17.4%. Soluble Klotho administration also ameliorated premature aging-related phenotype, such as growth retardation, premature thymus involution and vascular calcification, and effectively enhanced urinary phosphate excretion in kl/kl mice. Klotho treatment attenuated renal fibrosis through down-regulation of transforming growth factor-β signaling as well as reduced cellular senescence through down-regulation of p21-cip1 mRNA levels. In addition, soluble Klotho treatment significantly reduced both renal and aorta calcium deposits. In conclusion, our study shows the therapeutic potential of soluble Klotho protein to treat age-related disorders in mice.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Annual review of physiology 75 503 - 33 0066-4278 2013 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The metabolically active and perpetually remodeling calcium phosphate-based endoskeleton in terrestrial vertebrates sets the demands on whole-organism calcium and phosphate homeostasis that involves multiple organs in terms of mineral flux and endocrine cross talk. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-Klotho endocrine networks epitomize the complexity of systems biology, and specifically, the FGF23-αKlotho axis highlights the concept of the skeleton holding the master switch of homeostasis rather than a passive target organ as hitherto conceived. Other than serving as a coreceptor for FGF23, αKlotho circulates as an endocrine substance with a multitude of effects. This review covers recent data on the physiological regulation and function of the complex FGF23-αKlotho network. Chronic kidney disease is a common pathophysiological state in which FGF23-αKlotho, a multiorgan endocrine network, is deranged in a self-amplifying vortex resulting in organ dysfunction of the utmost severity that contributes to its morbidity and mortality.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Contributions to nephrology 180 47 - 63 0302-5144 2013 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Through alternative splicing, Klotho protein exists both as a secreted and a membrane form whose extracellular domain could be shed from the cell surface by secretases and released into the circulation to act as endocrine factor. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) to modulate FGF23 signal transduction, soluble Klotho is a multifunction protein present in the biological fluids including blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid and plays important roles in antiaging, energy metabolism, inhibition of Wnt signaling, antioxidation, modulation of ion transport, control of parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2VD3 production, and antagonism of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Emerging evidence from clinical and basic studies reveal that chronic kidney disease is a state of endocrine and renal Klotho deficiency, which may serve as an early biomarker and a pathogenic contributor to chronic progression and complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Supplementation of exogenous Klotho and/or upregulation of endogenous Klotho production by using rennin angiotensin system inhibitors, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma agonists, or anti-oxidants may confer renoprotection from oxidation and suppression of renal fibrosis, and also on prevention or alleviation of complications in chronic kidney disease. Therefore, Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease.
  • Zhong-Jian Shen, Jie Hu, Aktar Ali, Johanne Pastor, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Robert D Blank, Makoto Kuro-o, James S Malter
    PloS one 5 8 (5) e63565  2013 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Bone is constantly formed and resorbed throughout life by coordinated actions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in osteoblast function remain incompletely understood. Here we show, for the first time, that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase PIN1 controls the osteogenic activity of osteoblasts. Pin1 null mice exhibited an age-dependent decrease in bone mineral density and trabecular bone formation without alteration in cortical bone. Further analysis identified a defect in BMP signaling in Pin1 null osteoblasts but normal osteoclast function. PIN1 interacted with SMAD5 and was required for the expression by primary osteoblasts of osteoblast specific transcription factors (CBFA1 and OSX), ECM (collagen I and OCN) and the formation of bone nodules. Our results thus uncover a novel aspect of the molecular underpinning of osteoblast function and identify a new therapeutic target for bone diseases.
  • Wei Ling Lau, Elizabeth M Leaf, Ming Chang Hu, Marc M Takeno, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe, Cecilia M Giachelli
    Kidney international 12 82 (12) 1261 - 70 0085-2538 2012/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Vascular calcification is common in chronic kidney disease, where cardiovascular mortality remains the leading cause of death. Patients with kidney disease are often prescribed vitamin D receptor agonists (VDRAs) that confer a survival benefit, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we tested two VDRAs in a mouse chronic kidney disease model where dietary phosphate loading induced aortic medial calcification. Mice were given intraperitoneal calcitriol or paricalcitol three times per week for 3 weeks. These treatments were associated with half of the aortic calcification compared to no therapy, and there was no difference between the two agents. In the setting of a high-phosphate diet, serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels were not significantly altered by treatment. VDRA therapy was associated with increased serum and urine klotho levels, increased phosphaturia, correction of hyperphosphatemia, and lowering of serum fibroblast growth factor-23. There was no effect on elastin remodeling or inflammation; however, the expression of the anticalcification factor, osteopontin, in aortic medial cells was increased. Paricalcitol upregulated osteopontin secretion from mouse vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. Thus, klotho and osteopontin were upregulated by VDRA therapy in chronic kidney disease, independent of changes in serum parathyroid hormone and calcium.
  • Tetsu Akimoto, Hiromichi Yoshizawa, Yuko Watanabe, Akihiko Numata, Tomoyuki Yamazaki, Eri Takeshima, Kana Iwazu, Takanori Komada, Naoko Otani, Yoshiyuki Morishita, Chiharu Ito, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Yasuhiro Ando, Shigeaki Muto, Makoto Kuro-o, Eiji Kusano
    BMC nephrology 13 155 - 155 2012/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein, which appears to be implicated in aging. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the relationship between the soluble Klotho level and renal function in patients with various degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: The levels of soluble Klotho in the serum and urine obtained from one hundred thirty-one CKD patients were determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system. RESULTS: The amount of urinary excreted Klotho during the 24 hr period ranged from 1.6 to 5178 ng/day (median 427 ng/day; interquartile range [IR] 56.8-1293.1), and the serum Klotho concentration ranged from 163.9 to 2123.7 pg/ml (median 759.7 pg/ml; IR 579.5-1069.1). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly correlated with the log-transformed values of the amount of 24 hr urinary excreted Klotho (r = 0.407, p < 0.01) and the serum Klotho levels (r = 0.232, p < 0.01). However, a stepwise multiple regression analysis identified eGFR to be a variable independently associated only with the log-transformed value of the amount of 24-hr urinary excreted Klotho but not with the log-transformed serum Klotho concentration. Despite the strong correlation between random urine protein-to-creatinine ratio and the 24 hr urinary protein excretion (r = 0.834, p < 0.01), a moderate linear association was observed between the log-transformed value of the amount of 24 hr urinary excreted Klotho and that of the urinary Klotho-to-creatinine ratio (Klotho/Cr) in random urine specimens (r = 0.726, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The amount of urinary Klotho, rather than the serum Klotho levels, should be linked to the magnitude of the functioning nephrons in CKD patients. The use of random urine Klotho/Cr as a surrogate for the amount of 24-hr urinary excreted Klotho needs to be evaluated more carefully.
  • Masahiro Azuma, Daisuke Koyama, Jiro Kikuchi, Hiromichi Yoshizawa, Dissayabutra Thasinas, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Makoto Kuro-o, Yusuke Furukawa, Eiji Kusano
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 10 26 (10) 4264 - 74 0892-6638 2012/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The aging suppressor geneKlotho is predominantly expressed in the kidney irrespective of species. Because Klotho protein is an essential component of an endocrine axis that regulates renal phosphate handling, the kidney-specific expression is biologically relevant; however, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence indicating that promoter methylation restricts the expression of the Klotho gene in the kidney. Based on evolutionary conservation and histone methylation patterns, the region up to -1200 bp was defined as a major promoter element of the human Klotho gene. This region displayed promoter activity equally in Klotho-expressing and -nonexpressing cells in transient reporter assays, but the activity was reduced to ∼20% when the constructs were integrated into the chromatin in the latter. Both endogenous and transfected Klotho promoters were 30-40% methylated in Klotho-nonexpressing cells, but unmethylated in Klotho-expressing renal tubular cells. DNA demethylating agents increased Klotho expression 1.5- to 3.0-fold in nonexpressing cells and restored the activity of silenced reporter constructs. Finally, we demonstrated that a severe hypomorphic allele of Klotho had aberrant CpG methylation in kl/kl mice. These findings might be useful in therapeutic intervention for accelerated aging and several complications caused by Klotho down-regulation.
  • Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Makoto Kuro-o
    Clinical calcium 10 22 (10) 1493 - 8 0917-5857 2012/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Mice lacking Klotho or fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) exhibit a premature aging syndrome associated with abnormal mineral metabolism characterized by hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, and hypervitaminosis D. Several genetic and dietary interventions that reduce blood phosphate, calcium, and/or vitamin D levels rescue the premature aging syndrome concomitantly. Notably, the rescue is always associated with decrease in blood phosphate levels, but not necessarily with decrease in calcium or vitamin D, suggesting that hyperphosphatemia is primarily responsible for the premature aging. Hyperphsophatemia, decreased Klotho expression, and aging-like symptoms are often manifested in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, CKD may be viewed as a premature aging syndrome caused by hyperphosphatemia and Klotho deficiency. Further clinical studies are required to verify the link between phosphate and aging and to apply this novel concept to anti-aging medicine.
  • Masahiro Azuma, Daisuke Koyama, Jiro Kikuchi, Hiromichi Yoshizawa, Dissayabutra Thasinas, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Makoto Kuro-O, Yusuke Furukawa, Eiji Kusano
    FASEB Journal 26 (10) 4264 - 4274 1530-6860 2012/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The aging suppressor geneKlotho is predominantly expressed in the kidney irrespective of species. Because Klotho protein is an essential component of an endocrine axis that regulates renal phosphate handling, the kidney-specific expression is biologically relevant however, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Here we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence indicating that promoter methylation restricts the expression of the Klotho gene in the kidney. Based on evolutionary conservation and histone methylation patterns, the region up to - 1200 bp was defined as a major promoter element of the human Klotho gene. This region displayed promoter activity equally in Klotho-expressing and -nonexpressing cells in transient reporter assays, but the activity was reduced to ∼20% when the constructs were integrated into the chromatin in the latter. Both endogenous and transfected Klotho promoters were 30-40% methylated in Klotho-nonexpressing cells, but unmethylated in Klotho-expressing renal tubular cells. DNA demethylating agents increased Klotho expression 1.5- to 3.0-fold in nonexpressing cells and restored the activity of silenced reporter constructs. Finally, we demonstrated that a severe hypomorphic allele of Klotho had aberrant CpG methylation in kl/kl mice. These findings might be useful in therapeutic intervention for accelerated aging and several complications caused by Klotho downregulation. © FASEB.
  • Regina Goetz, Mutsuko Ohnishi, Serkan Kir, Hiroshi Kurosu, Lei Wang, Johanne Pastor, Jinghong Ma, Weiming Gai, Makoto Kuro-o, Mohammed S Razzaque, Moosa Mohammadi
    The Journal of biological chemistry 34 287 (34) 29134 - 46 0021-9258 2012/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    FGFs 19, 21, and 23 are hormones that regulate in a Klotho co-receptor-dependent fashion major metabolic processes such as glucose and lipid metabolism (FGF21) and phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis (FGF23). The role of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan in the formation of the cell surface signaling complex of endocrine FGFs has remained unclear. Here we show that heparan sulfate is not a component of the signal transduction unit of FGF19 and FGF23. In support of our model, we convert a paracrine FGF into an endocrine ligand by diminishing heparan sulfate-binding affinity of the paracrine FGF and substituting its C-terminal tail for that of an endocrine FGF containing the Klotho co-receptor-binding site to home the ligand into the target tissue. In addition to serving as a proof of concept, the ligand conversion provides a novel strategy for engineering endocrine FGF-like molecules for the treatment of metabolic disorders, including global epidemics such as type 2 diabetes and obesity.
  • Dwight C German, Ida Khobahy, Johanne Pastor, Makoto Kuro-O, Xinran Liu
    Neurobiology of aging 7 33 (7) 1483.e25-30 - 30 0197-4580 2012/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a putative age-suppressing gene whose overexpression in mice results in extension of life span. The Klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein whose extracellular domain is shed and released into blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, potentially functioning as a humoral factor. The extracellular domain of Klotho has an activity that increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes and confers resistance to oxidative stress in cultured cells and in whole animals. The transmembrane form of the Klotho protein directly binds to multiple fibroblast growth factor receptors and modifies their ligand affinity and specificity. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise cellular localization of Klotho in the mouse brain. Using light microscopic immunohistochemical methods, we found the highest levels of Klotho immunoreactivity in 2 brain regions: the choroid plexus, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In the choroid plexus cells, Klotho was found not only on the plasma membrane but also in large amounts near the nuclear membrane. Likewise, in the Purkinje cell Klotho was found throughout the cell including dendrites, axon and soma with large amounts near the nuclear membrane. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found Klotho in the cell membrane, but the highest concentration was localized in the peripheral portion of the nucleus and the nucleolus in both cell types. This new finding suggests that in addition to Klotho being secreted from cells in brain, it also has a nuclear function.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 4 21 (4) 362 - 8 1062-4821 2012/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The klotho gene was originally identified as a putative aging-suppressor gene in mice that extended life span when overexpressed and induced a premature aging syndrome when disrupted. Subsequently, it became clear that the Klotho family of membrane proteins function as obligate co-receptors for endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate various metabolic processes. This review focuses on the Klotho-FGF23 endocrine system that maintains phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, and discusses the mechanism of action and the potential contribution of Klotho deficiency to acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Klotho functions as a receptor for the phosphaturic hormone FGF23. Klotho deficiency induces resistance to FGF23 and predisposition to Pi retention, which represents a critical feature of pathophysiology of CKD. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein is subject to ectodomain shedding and released into the blood and urine. Secreted Klotho functions as a humoral factor that inhibits AKI, vascular calcification, renal fibrosis, and cancer metastasis in an FGF23-independent manner. SUMMARY: Various factors that affect Klotho expression have been identified. Prevention of Klotho decline and supplementation of Klotho can be a novel therapeutic strategy for many age-related diseases.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 7 27 (7) 2650 - 7 0931-0509 2012/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is highly expressed in the kidney and a soluble form of Klotho functions as an endocrine substance that exerts multiple actions including the modulation of renal solute transport and the protection of the kidney from a variety of insults in experimental models. At present, the Klotho database is still largely preclinical, but the anticipated forthcoming impact on clinical nephrology can be immense. This manuscript puts these potentials into perspective for the clinician. There is renal and systemic Klotho deficiency in both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Klotho plummets very early and severely in AKI and represents a pathogenic factor that exacerbates acute kidney damage. In CKD, Klotho deficiency exerts a significant impact on progression of renal disease and extra renal complications. In AKI, soluble Klotho levels in plasma and/or urine may serve as an early biomarker for kidney parenchymal injury. Restoration by exogenous supplementation or stimulation of endogenous Klotho may prevent and/or ameliorate kidney injury and mitigate CKD development. In CKD, Klotho levels may be an indicator of early disease and predict the rate of progression, and presence and severity of soft tissue calcification. The correction of Klotho deficiency may delay progression and forestall development of extra renal complications in CKD. Rarely does one find a molecule with such broad potential applications in nephrology. Klotho can possibly emerge on the horizon as a candidate for an unprecedented sole biomarker and intervention. Nephrologists should monitor the progress of the preclinical studies and the imminently emerging human database.
  • Yuhong Wang, Makoto Kuro-o, Zhongjie Sun
    Aging cell 3 11 (3) 410 - 7 1474-9718 2012/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a recently discovered anti-aging gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether klotho gene transfer attenuates superoxide production and oxidative stress in rat aorta smooth muscle (RASM) cells. RASM cells were transfected with AAV plasmids carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (mKL) or LacZ as a control. Klotho gene transfer increased klotho expression in RASM cells. Notably, klotho gene expression decreased Nox2 NADPH oxidase protein expression but did not affect Nox2 mRNA expression, suggesting that the inhibition may occur at the posttranscriptional level. Klotho gene transfer decreased intracellular superoxide production and oxidative stress in RASM cells. Klotho gene expression also significantly attenuated the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced superoxide production, oxidative damage, and apoptosis. Interestingly, klotho gene delivery dose dependently increased the intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity in RASM cells. Rp-cAMP, a competitive inhibitor of cAMP, abolished the klotho-induced increase in PKA activity, indicating that klotho activated PKA via cAMP. Notably, inhibition of cAMP-dependent PKA activity by RP-cAMP abolished klotho-induced inhibition of Nox2 protein expression, suggesting an important role of cAMP-dependent PKA in this process. This finding revealed a previously unidentified role of klotho in regulating Nox2 protein expression in RASM cells. Klotho not only downregulated Nox2 protein expression and intracellular superoxide production but also attenuated AngII-induced superoxide production, oxidative damage, and apoptosis. The klotho-induced suppression of Nox2 protein expression may be mediated by the cAMP-PKA pathway.
  • Tetsu Akimoto, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Taro Sugase, Yuko Watanabe, Hiromichi Yoshizawa, Naoko Otani, Akihiko Numata, Eri Takeshima, Tomoyuki Yamazaki, Takuya Miki, Chiharu Ito, Johanne V Pastor, Yoshitaka Iwazu, Osamu Saito, Shigeaki Muto, Makoto Kuro-o, Eiji Kusano
    Clinical and experimental nephrology 3 16 (3) 442 - 7 1342-1751 2012/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: Klotho has been investigated as an anti-aging protein that is predominantly expressed in the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys and in the choroid plexus of the brain. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between the soluble form of Klotho and renal function in chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, a relationship which remains poorly understood. METHODS: The soluble Klotho levels in the serum, urine, and peritoneal dialysate obtained from thirty-six PD patients were determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system. RESULTS: The amount of urinary excreted soluble Klotho over 24 h ranged from 1.54 to 1774.4 ng/day (median 303.2 ng/day; interquartile range [IR] 84.1-498.5), while the serum soluble Klotho concentration ranged from 194.4 to 990.4 pg/ml (mean 553.7 ± 210.4 pg/ml). The amount of urinary Klotho excretion was significantly correlated with residual renal function. However, there was no apparent correlation between the serum soluble Klotho levels and the residual renal function. Klotho was also detected in the 24-h dialysate collections. There was a significant correlation between the peritoneal Klotho excretion and the amount of albumin contained in the dialysate collections (r = 0.798, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of urinary excreted Klotho, but not the serum level of soluble Klotho, may be a potential biomarker for assessing the residual renal function among PD patients. Whether our findings are also valid for chronic kidney disease patients overall should therefore be evaluated in greater detail.
  • Hidekazu Sugiura, Takumi Yoshida, Shunji Shiohira, Junko Kohei, Michihiro Mitobe, Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-o, Kosaku Nitta, Ken Tsuchiya
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 10 302 (10) F1252-64 - 64 1931-857X 2012/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Renal expression of the klotho gene is markedly suppressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since renal fibrosis is the final common pathology of CKD, we tested whether decreased Klotho expression is a cause and/or a result of renal fibrosis in mice and cultured renal cell lines. We induced renal fibrosis by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice with reduced Klotho expression (kl/+ mice) and compared them with wild-type mice. The UUO kidneys from kl/+ mice expressed significantly higher levels of fibrosis markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, and transforming growth factor-β(1) (TGF-β(1)) than those from wild-type mice. In addition, in cultured renal fibroblast cells (NRK49F), the levels of α-SMA and PAI1 expression were significantly suppressed by addition of recombinant Klotho protein to the medium. The similar effects were observed by a TGF-β(1) receptor inhibitor (ALK5 inhibitor). These observations suggest that low renal Klotho expression enhances TGF-β(1) activity and is a cause of renal fibrosis. On the other hand, TGF-β(1) reduced Klotho expression in renal cultured epithelial cells (inner medullary collecting duct and human renal proximal tubular epithelium), suggesting that low renal Klotho expression is a result of renal fibrosis. Taken together, renal fibrosis can trigger a deterioration spiral of Klotho expression, which may be involved in the pathophysiology of CKD progression.
  • Hidekazu Sugiura, Takumi Yoshida, Shunji Shiohira, Junko Kohei, Michihiro Mitobe, Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-O, Kosaku Nitta, Ken Tsuchiya
    American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology 302 (10) F1252 - F1264 0363-6127 2012/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Renal expression of the klotho gene is markedly suppressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since renal fibrosis is the final common pathology of CKD, we tested whether decreased Klotho expression is a cause and/or a result of renal fibrosis in mice and cultured renal cell lines. We induced renal fibrosis by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice with reduced Klotho expression (kl/+ mice) and compared them with wild-type mice. The UUO kidneys from kl/+ mice expressed significantly higher levels of fibrosis markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) than those from wild-type mice. In addition, in cultured renal fibroblast cells (NRK49F), the levels of α-SMA and PAI1 expression were significantly suppressed by addition of recombinant Klotho protein to the medium. The similar effects were observed by a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor (ALK5 inhibitor). These observations suggest that low renal Klotho expression enhances TGF-β1 activity and is a cause of renal fibrosis. On the other hand, TGF-β1 reduced Klotho expression in renal cultured epithelial cells (inner medullary collecting duct and human renal proximal tubular epithelium), suggesting that low renal Klotho expression is a result of renal fibrosis. Taken together, renal fibrosis can trigger a deterioration spiral of Klotho expression, which may be involved in the pathophysiology of CKD progression. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.
  • Regina Goetz, Mutsuko Ohnishi, Xunshan Ding, Hiroshi Kurosu, Lei Wang, Junko Akiyoshi, Jinghong Ma, Weiming Gai, Yisrael Sidis, Nelly Pitteloud, Makoto Kuro-O, Mohammed S Razzaque, Moosa Mohammadi
    Molecular and cellular biology 10 32 (10) 1944 - 54 0270-7306 2012/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    It has been recently established that Klotho coreceptors associate with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor tyrosine kinases (FGFRs) to enable signaling by endocrine-acting FGFs. However, the molecular interactions leading to FGF-FGFR-Klotho ternary complex formation remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that in contrast to αKlotho, βKlotho binds its cognate endocrine FGF ligand (FGF19 or FGF21) and FGFR independently through two distinct binding sites. FGF19 and FGF21 use their respective C-terminal tails to bind to a common binding site on βKlotho. Importantly, we also show that Klotho coreceptors engage a conserved hydrophobic groove in the immunoglobulin-like domain III (D3) of the "c" splice isoform of FGFR. Intriguingly, this hydrophobic groove is also used by ligands of the paracrine-acting FGF8 subfamily for receptor binding. Based on this binding site overlap, we conclude that while Klotho coreceptors enhance binding affinity of FGFR for endocrine FGFs, they actively suppress binding of FGF8 subfamily ligands to FGFR.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 728 25 - 40 0065-2598 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been recognized as hormones that regulate a variety of metabolic processes. FGF19 is secreted from intestine upon feeding and acts on liver to suppress bile acid synthesis. FGF21 is secreted from liver upon fasting and acts on adipose tissue to promote lipolysis and responses to fasting. FGF23 is secreted from bone and acts on kidney to inhibit phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D synthesis. One critical feature of endocrine FGFs is that they require the Klotho gene family of transmembrane proteins as coreceptors to bind their cognate FGF receptors and exert their biological activities. This chapter overviews function of Klotho family proteins as obligate coreceptors for endocrine FGFs and discusses potential link between Klothos and age-related diseases.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 728 126 - 57 0065-2598 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Soluble Klotho (sKl) in the circulation can be generated directly by alterative splicing of the Klotho transcript or the extracellular domain of membrane Klotho can be released from membrane-anchored Klotho on the cell surface. Unlike membrane Klotho which functions as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), sKl, acts as hormonal factor and plays important roles in anti-aging, anti-oxidation, modulation of ion transport, and Wnt signaling. Emerging evidence reveals that Klotho deficiency is an early biomarker for chronic kidney diseases as well as a pathogenic factor. Klotho deficiency is associated with progression and chronic complications in chronic kidney disease including vascular calcification, cardiac hypertrophy, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In multiple experimental models, replacement of sKl, or manipulated up-regulation of endogenous Klotho protect the kidney from renal insults, preserve kidney function, and suppress renal fibrosis, in chronic kidney disease. Klotho is a highly promising candidate on the horizon as an early biomarker, and as a novel therapeutic agent for chronic kidney disease.
  • Afsaneh Rangiani, Zhengguo Cao, Yao Sun, Yongbo Lu, Tian Gao, Baozhi Yuan, Anika Rodgers, Chunlin Qin, Makoto Kuro-O, Jian Q Feng
    PloS one 8 7 (8) e42329  2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PURPOSE: Dmp1 (dentin matrix protein1) null mice (Dmp1(-/-)) display hypophosphatemic rickets with a sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Disruption of Klotho (the obligatory co-receptor of FGF23) results in hyperphosphatemia with ectopic calcifications formed in blood vessels and kidneys. To determine the role of DMP1 in both a hyperphosphatemic environment and within the ectopic calcifications, we created Dmp1/Klotho compound deficient (Dmp1(-/-)kl/kl) mice. PROCEDURES: A combination of TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, TRAP, von Kossa, micro CT, bone histomorphometry, serum biochemistry and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques were used to analyze the changes in blood vessels, kidney and bone for wild type control, Dmp1(-/-), Klotho deficient (kl/kl) and Dmp1(-/-)kl/kl animals. FINDINGS: Interestingly, Dmp1(-/-)kl/kl mice show a dramatic improvement of rickets and an identical serum biochemical phenotype to kl/kl mice (extremely high FGF23, hyperphosphatemia and reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels). Unexpectedly, Dmp1(-/-)kl/kl mice presented elevated levels of apoptosis in osteocytes, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in small and large blood vessels, and within the kidney as well as dramatic increase in ectopic calcification in all these tissues, as compared to kl/kl. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that DMP1 has an anti-apoptotic role in hyperphosphatemia. Discovering this novel protective role of DMP1 may have clinical relevance in protecting the cells from apoptosis in high-phosphate environments as observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD).
  • Jian Xie, Seung-Kuy Cha, Sung-Wan An, Makoto Kuro-O, Lutz Birnbaumer, Chou-Long Huang
    Nature communications 3 1238 - 1238 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a membrane protein predominantly produced in the kidney that exerts some antiageing effects. Ageing is associated with an increased risk of heart failure; whether Klotho is cardioprotective is unknown. Here we show that Klotho-deficient mice have no baseline cardiac abnormalities but develop exaggerated pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling in response to stress. Cardioprotection by Klotho in normal mice is mediated by downregulation of TRPC6 channels in the heart. We demonstrate that deletion of Trpc6 prevents stress-induced exaggerated cardiac remodelling in Klotho-deficient mice. Furthermore, mice with heart-specific overexpression of TRPC6 develop spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling. Klotho overexpression ameliorates cardiac pathologies in these mice and improves their long-term survival. Soluble Klotho present in the systemic circulation inhibits TRPC6 currents in cardiomyocytes by blocking phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent exocytosis of TRPC6 channels. These results provide a new perspective on the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies and open new avenues for treatment of the disease.
  • Yuchi Zheng, Rui Peng, Robert W. Murphy, Masaki Kuro-O, Lujun Hu, Xiaomao Zeng
    Asian Herpetological Research 3 (4) 288 - 302 2095-0357 2012 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Previous work found that different Japanese lineages of salamanders had quite different levels of species and genetic diversity. Lineages vary from having one to several species and the extent of genetic variation among lineages differs substantially. Most speciose, genus Hynobius contains 18 species and several potential cryptic species. We explore genetic diversity in this genus by combining comprehensive sampling and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Based on this and previous analyses of salamanders, relative times of divergence are employed to evaluate the relationship between age and diversity among the four major lineages whose distributions broadly overlap on the islands. For Hynobius, our analyses are congruent with the previously reported high level of cryptic diversity in morphology and allozymes, particularly in species composed of non-sister matrilines. Both species and genetic diversity correlate with the relative ages of the lineages. This correlation indicates that the variation in levels of diversity can be explained, to a considerable extent, by the hypothesis that older insular lineages have accumulated greater diversity. In addition to the Korean Peninsula, H. leechii might have survived in another Pleistocene glacial refugium north of the peninsula and this refugium provided a source of colonization after the last glacial maximum.
  • Jinyong Kim, Ugur Eskiocak, Guido Stadler, Zhenjun Lou, Makoto Kuro-o, Jerry W Shay, Woodring E Wright
    The Journal of biological chemistry 50 286 (50) 43294 - 300 0021-9258 2011/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Normal human colonic epithelial cells (HCECs) are not immortalized by telomerase alone but also require CDK4. Some human cell types growth-arrest due to stress- or aberrant signaling-induced senescence (stasis). Stasis represents the consequences of growth conditions culture that are inadequate to maintain long-term proliferation. Overexpressed CDK4 titers out p16 and allows cells to ignore the growth arrest signals produced by stasis. To identify factors contributing to the inadequate culture environment, we used a 62,000-member shRNA library to knock down factors cooperating with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the immortalization of HCECs. Knockdown of Klotho gamma (KLG; also known as KLPH and LCTL) allowed hTERT to immortalize HCECs. KLG is one isoform of the Klotho family of factors that coordinate interaction between different FGF ligands and the FGF receptor. We also found that knockdown of KLG induced another member of the Klotho family, Klotho beta (KLB). Induction of KLB was maintained and could activate ERK1/2 in immortalized cells. Supplementation of the culture medium with the KLB ligand FGF19 had a similar effect on hTERT-expressing HCECs as knockdown of KLG regarding both immortalization and down-regulation of the tumor suppressor Klotho alpha. Together, these data suggest that KLB is an important regulator in the immortalization of HCECs by facilitating FGF19 growth factor signaling.
  • Valerie Vanhooren, Sylviane Dewaele, Makoto Kuro-O, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Laurent Dollé, Leo A van Grunsven, Evgenia Makrantonaki, Christos C Zouboulis, Cuiying C Chen, Claude Libert
    Aging cell 6 10 (6) 1056 - 66 1474-9718 2011/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We recently reported that N-glycosylation changes during human aging. To further investigate the molecular basis determining these alterations, the aging process in mice was studied. N-glycan profiling of mouse serum glycoproteins in different age groups of healthy C57BL/6 mice showed substantial age-related changes in three major N-glycan structures: under-galactosylated biantennary (NGA2F), biantennary (NA2), and core α-1,6-fucosylated -β-galactosylated biantennary structures (NA2F). Mice defective in klotho gene expression (kl/kl), which have a shortened lifespan, displayed a similar but accelerated trend. Interestingly, the opposite trend was observed in slow-aging Snell Dwarf mice (dw/dw) and in mice fed a calorically restricted diet. We also discovered that increased expression and activity of α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) in the liver are strongly linked to the age-related changes in glycosylation and that this increased FUT8 and fucosylation influence IGF-1 signaling. These data demonstrate that the glycosylation machinery in liver cells is significantly affected during aging and that age-related increased FUT8 activity could influence the aging process by altering the sensitivity of the IGF-1R signaling pathway.
  • Christian Faul, Ansel P Amaral, Behzad Oskouei, Ming-Chang Hu, Alexis Sloan, Tamara Isakova, Orlando M Gutiérrez, Robier Aguillon-Prada, Joy Lincoln, Joshua M Hare, Peter Mundel, Azorides Morales, Julia Scialla, Michael Fischer, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jing Chen, Alan S Go, Sylvia E Rosas, Lisa Nessel, Raymond R Townsend, Harold I Feldman, Martin St John Sutton, Akinlolu Ojo, Crystal Gadegbeku, Giovana Seno Di Marco, Stefan Reuter, Dominik Kentrup, Klaus Tiemann, Marcus Brand, Joseph A Hill, Orson W Moe, Makoto Kuro-O, John W Kusek, Martin G Keane, Myles Wolf
    The Journal of clinical investigation 11 121 (11) 4393 - 408 0021-9738 2011/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health epidemic that increases risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important mechanism of cardiovascular disease in individuals with CKD. Elevated levels of FGF23 have been linked to greater risks of LVH and mortality in patients with CKD, but whether these risks represent causal effects of FGF23 is unknown. Here, we report that elevated FGF23 levels are independently associated with LVH in a large, racially diverse CKD cohort. FGF23 caused pathological hypertrophy of isolated rat cardiomyocytes via FGF receptor-dependent activation of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, but this effect was independent of klotho, the coreceptor for FGF23 in the kidney and parathyroid glands. Intramyocardial or intravenous injection of FGF23 in wild-type mice resulted in LVH, and klotho-deficient mice demonstrated elevated FGF23 levels and LVH. In an established animal model of CKD, treatment with an FGF-receptor blocker attenuated LVH, although no change in blood pressure was observed. These results unveil a klotho-independent, causal role for FGF23 in the pathogenesis of LVH and suggest that chronically elevated FGF23 levels contribute directly to high rates of LVH and mortality in individuals with CKD.
  • Xiaoyu Wang, Ying Dong, Ameena J Jiwani, Yonglong Zou, Johanne Pastor, Makoto Kuro-O, Amyn A Habib, Minzi Ruan, David A Boothman, Chin-Rang Yang
    Proteome science 9 53 - 53 2011/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    An improved version of quantitative protein array platform utilizing linear Quantum dot signaling for systematically measuring protein levels and phosphorylation states is presented. The signals are amplified linearly by a confocal laser Quantum dot scanner resulting in ~1000-fold more sensitivity than traditional Western blots, but are not linear by the enzyme-based amplification. Software is developed to facilitate the quantitative readouts of signaling network activities. Kinetics of EGFRvIII mutant signaling was analyzed to quantify cross-talks between EGFR and other signaling pathways.
  • Yuchi Zheng, Rui Peng, Masaki Kuro-o, Xiaomao Zeng
    Molecular biology and evolution 28 (9) 2521 - 35 2011/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    In the practice of molecular dating, substitution saturation will bias the results if not properly modeled. Date estimates based on commonly used mitochondrial DNA sequences likely suffer from this problem because of their high substitution rate. Nevertheless, the patterns and extent of such expected bias remain unknown for many major evolutionary lineages, which often differ in ages, available calibrations, and substitution rates of their mitochondrial genome. In this case study of salamanders, we used estimates based on multiple nuclear exons to assess the effects of saturation on dating divergences using mitochondrial genome sequences on a timescale of ~200-300 My. The results indicated that, due to saturation for older divergences and in the absence of younger effective calibration points, dates derived from the mitochondrial data were considerably overestimated and systematically biased toward the calibration point for the ingroup root. The overestimate might be as great as 3-10 times (about 20 My) older than actual divergence dates for recent splitting events and 40 My older for events that are more ancient. For deep divergences, dates estimated were strongly compressed together. Furthermore, excluding the third codon positions of protein-coding genes or only using the RNA genes or second codon positions did not considerably improve the performance. In the order Caudata, slowly evolving markers such as nuclear exons are preferred for dating a phylogeny covering a relatively wide time span. Dates estimated from these markers can be used as secondary calibrations for dating recent events based on rapidly evolving markers for which mitochondrial DNA sequences are attractive candidates due to their short coalescent time. In other groups, similar evaluation should be performed to facilitate the choice of markers for molecular dating and making inferences from the results.
  • Hongwei Wang, Madhukumar Venkatesh, Hao Li, Regina Goetz, Subhajit Mukherjee, Arunima Biswas, Liang Zhu, Andreas Kaubisch, Lei Wang, James Pullman, Kathleen Whitney, Makoto Kuro-o, Andres I Roig, Jerry W Shay, Moosa Mohammadi, Sridhar Mani
    The Journal of clinical investigation 8 121 (8) 3220 - 32 0021-9738 2011/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is activated by a range of xenochemicals, including chemotherapeutic drugs, and has been suggested to play a role in the development of tumor cell resistance to anticancer drugs. PXR also has been implicated as a regulator of the growth and apoptosis of colon tumors. Here, we have used a xenograft model of colon cancer to define a molecular mechanism that might underlie PXR-driven colon tumor growth and malignancy. Activation of PXR was found to be sufficient to enhance the neoplastic characteristics, including cell growth, invasion, and metastasis, of both human colon tumor cell lines and primary human colon cancer tissue xenografted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, we were able to show that this PXR-mediated phenotype required FGF19 signaling. PXR bound to the FGF19 promoter in both human colon tumor cells and "normal" intestinal crypt cells. However, while both cell types proliferated in response to PXR ligands, the FGF19 promoter was activated by PXR only in cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicate that colon cancer growth in the presence of a specific PXR ligand results from tumor-specific induction of FGF19. These observations may lead to improved therapeutic regimens for colon carcinomas.
  • George B John, Chung-Yi Cheng, Makoto Kuro-o
    American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 1 58 (1) 127 - 34 0272-6386 2011/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene (KL) was identified first as a putative aging-suppressor gene that extended life span when overexpressed and accelerated aging-like phenotypes when disrupted in mice. It encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and is expressed predominantly in kidney, where it functions as an obligate coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). FGF-23 is a bone-derived hormone that suppresses phosphate reabsorption and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (vitamin D) synthesis in the kidney. Klotho also is expressed in the parathyroid gland, where FGF-23 decreases parathyroid hormone expression and secretion, further suppressing vitamin D synthesis in kidney. Thus, FGF-23 functions as a phosphaturic hormone and a counter-regulatory hormone for vitamin D, thereby inducing negative phosphate balance. Mice lacking either FGF-23 or Klotho show hyperphosphatemia in addition to developing multiple aging-like phenotypes, which can be rescued by resolving phosphate retention. These findings have unveiled an unexpected link between aging and phosphate. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), phosphate retention is seen universally and has been associated with increased mortality risk. Patients with CKD have high serum FGF-23 levels with decreased klotho expression in the kidney and parathyroid, rendering FGF-23 and Klotho as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CKD. The Klotho protein not only serves as a coreceptor for FGF-23, but also functions as a humoral factor. Klotho's extracellular domain is released into blood and urine by ectodomain shedding and exerts various functions independently of FGF-23, including regulation of multiple ion channels and transporters. Decreased urinary Klotho protein level has been identified as one of the earliest biomarkers of CKD progression. This review focuses on the current understanding of Klotho protein function, with emphasis on its potential involvement in the pathophysiologic process of CKD.
  • D T Asuzu, Y Hayashi, F Izbeki, L N Popko, D L Young, M R Bardsley, A Lorincz, M Kuro-O, D R Linden, G Farrugia, T Ordog
    Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 23 (7) e309-23  2011/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND:   Gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly constipation, increase with aging, but their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood due to lack of experimental models. Previously we established the progeric klotho mouse as a model of aging-associated anorexia and gastric dysmotility. We also detected reduced fecal output in these animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in vivo function and cellular make-up of the small intestinal and colonic neuromuscular apparatus. METHODS: Klotho expression was studied by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Motility was assessed by dye transit and bead expulsion. Smooth muscle and neuron-specific gene expression was studied by Western immunoblotting. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and precursors were analyzed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. HuC/D(+) myenteric neurons were enumerated by fluorescent microscopy. KEY RESULTS: Klotho protein was detected in neurons, smooth muscle cells, and some ICC classes. Small intestinal transit was slower but whole-gut transit of klotho mice was accelerated due to faster colonic transit and shorter intestinal lengths, apparent only after weaning. Fecal water content remained normal despite reduced output. Smooth muscle myosin expression was reduced. ICC, ICC precursors, as well as nitrergic and cholinergic neurons maintained their normal proportions in the shorter intestines. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: Progeric klotho mice express less contractile proteins and develop generalized intestinal neuromuscular hypoplasia mainly arising from stunted postweaning growth. As reduced fecal output in these mice occurs in the presence of accelerated colonic and whole-gut transit, it likely reflects reduced food intake rather than intestinal dysmotility.
  • Mentor Sopjani, Ioana Alesutan, Miribane Dërmaku-Sopjani, Shuchen Gu, Christine Zelenak, Carlos Munoz, Ana Velic, Michael Föller, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-o, Florian Lang
    FEBS letters 12 585 (12) 1759 - 64 0014-5793 2011/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho-hypomorphic (Klotho(hm)) mice suffer from renal salt wasting and hypovolemia despite hyperaldosteronism. The present study explored the effect of Klotho on renal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. According to immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy Na(+)/K(+) ATPase protein abundance in isolated collecting ducts was lower in Klotho(hm) mice than in their wild type littermates (Klotho(+/+)). Analysis with dual electrode voltage clamp recording showed that expression of Klotho in Xenopus oocytes increased the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump current. Treatment of Xenopus oocytes with Klotho protein similarly increased the pump current. In conclusion, Klotho increases the membrane abundance and activity of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Decreased Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity could thus contribute to the volume-depletion of klotho(hm) mice.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    The Korean journal of internal medicine 2 26 (2) 113 - 22 1226-3303 2011/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene was originally identified as a putative age-suppressing gene in mice that extends life span when overexpressed. It induces complex phenotypes resembling human premature aging syndromes when disrupted. The gene was named after a Greek goddess Klotho who spun the thread of life. Since then, various functional aspects of the klotho gene have been investigated, leading to the identification of multiple novel endocrine axes that regulate various metabolic processes and an unexpected link between mineral metabolism and aging. The purposes of this review were to overview recent progress on Klotho research and to discuss a novel aging mechanism.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Kidney international. Supplement 121 (121) S20-3 - 3 0098-6577 2011/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a putative aging suppressor gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane co-receptor that makes the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor specific for FGF-23. In addition to multiple endocrine organs, Klotho is expressed in kidney distal convoluted tubules and parathyroid cells, mediating the role of FGF-23 in bone-kidney-parathyroid control of phosphate and calcium. Klotho⁻/⁻ mice display premature aging and chronic kidney disease-associated mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)-like phenotypes mediated by hyperphosphatemia and remediated by phosphate-lowering interventions (diets low in phosphate or vitamin D; knockouts of 1α-hydroxylase, vitamin D receptor, or NaPi cotransporter). CKD can be seen as a state of hyperphosphatemia-induced accelerated aging associated with Klotho deficiency. Humans with CKD experience decreased Klotho expression as early as stage 1 CKD; Klotho continues to decline as CKD progresses, causing FGF-23 resistance and provoking large FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone increases, and hypovitaminosis D. Secreted Klotho protein, formed by extracellular clipping, exerts FGF-23-independent phosphaturic and calcium-conserving effects through its paracrine action on the proximal and distal tubules, respectively. We contend that decreased Klotho expression is the earliest biomarker of CKD and the initiator of CKD-MBD pathophysiology. Maintaining normal phosphate levels with phosphate binders in patients with CKD with declining Klotho expression is expected to reduce mineral and vascular derangements.
  • Makoto Kuro-O
    Kidney international 79121 S20-3  2011/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a putative aging suppressor gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane co-receptor that makes the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor specific for FGF-23. In addition to multiple endocrine organs, Klotho is expressed in kidney distal convoluted tubules and parathyroid cells, mediating the role of FGF-23 in bone-kidney-parathyroid control of phosphate and calcium. Klotho(-/-)mice display premature aging and chronic kidney disease-associated mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)-like phenotypes mediated by hyperphosphatemia and remediated by phosphate-lowering interventions (diets low in phosphate or vitamin D; knockouts of 1α-hydroxylase, vitamin D receptor, or NaPi cotransporter). CKD can be seen as a state of hyperphosphatemia-induced accelerated aging associated with Klotho deficiency. Humans with CKD experience decreased Klotho expression as early as stage 1 CKD; Klotho continues to decline as CKD progresses, causing FGF-23 resistance and provoking large FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone increases, and hypovitaminosis D. Secreted Klotho protein, formed by extracellular clipping, exerts FGF-23-independent phosphaturic and calcium-conserving effects through its paracrine action on the proximal and distal tubules, respectively. We contend that decreased Klotho expression is the earliest biomarker of CKD and the initiator of CKD-MBD pathophysiology. Maintaining normal phosphate levels with phosphate binders in patients with CKD with declining Klotho expression is expected to reduce mineral and vascular derangements.
  • Shigehiro Doi, Yonglong Zou, Osamu Togao, Johanne V Pastor, George B John, Lei Wang, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Russell Gotschall, Susan Schiavi, Noriaki Yorioka, Masaya Takahashi, David A Boothman, Makoto Kuro-o
    The Journal of biological chemistry 10 286 (10) 8655 - 65 0021-9258 2011/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by infiltration and proliferation of mesenchymal cells in interstitial space. A substantial portion of these cells is derived from residing non-epithelial and/or epithelial cells that have acquired the ability to migrate and proliferate. The mesenchymal transition is also observed in cancer cells to confer the ability to metastasize. Here, we show that renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction and metastasis of human cancer xenografts are suppressed by administration of secreted Klotho protein to mice. Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells. The extracellular domain of Klotho is secreted by ectodomain shedding. Secreted Klotho protein directly binds to the type-II TGF-β receptor and inhibits TGF-β1 binding to cell surface receptors, thereby inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling. Klotho suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) responses in cultured cells, including decreased epithelial marker expression, increased mesenchymal marker expression, and/or increased cell migration. In addition to TGF-β1 signaling, secreted Klotho has been shown to inhibit Wnt and IGF-1 signaling that can promote EMT. These results have raised the possibility that secreted Klotho may function as an endogenous anti-EMT factor by inhibiting multiple growth factor signaling pathways simultaneously.
  • Hye Eun Yoon, Jung Yeon Ghee, ShangGuo Piao, Ji-Hyun Song, Dong He Han, Sol Kim, Naro Ohashi, Hiroyuki Kobori, Makoto Kuro-o, Chul Woo Yang
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 3 26 (3) 800 - 13 0931-0509 2011/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: The Klotho gene plays a role in suppressing ageing-related disorders. It is suggested that activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or oxidative stress suppresses Klotho in the kidney. This study evaluated the association between Klotho expression and RAS in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced renal injury. METHODS: Chronic CsA nephropathy was induced by administering CsA (30 mg/kg) to mice on a low-salt diet (LSD) for 4 weeks. A normal-salt diet (NSD) was used as the control. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed for Klotho and intrarenal RAS activity was measured using immunohistochemistry for angiotensinogen and renin. Oxidative stress was measured with urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). RESULTS: CsA treatment decreased Klotho mRNA and protein in mouse kidney in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, but a concurrent treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker, reversed the decrease in Klotho expression with histological improvement. This finding was more marked in the LSD than the NSD. Klotho expression was correlated with angiotensinogen and renin expression, tubulointerstitial fibrosis score and urinary 8-OHdG excretion. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II may play a pivotal role in regulating Klotho expression in CsA-induced renal injury. AT1 receptor blocker may inhibit the ageing process by decreasing oxidative stress caused by CsA.
  • Chung-Yi Cheng, Makoto Kuro-o, Mohammed S Razzaque
    Advances in chronic kidney disease 2 18 (2) 91 - 7 1548-5595 2011/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient and is routinely assimilated through consumption of food. The body's need of phosphate is usually fulfilled by intestinal absorption of this element from the consumed food, whereas its serum level is tightly regulated by renal excretion or reabsorption. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, located in the luminal side of the proximal tubular epithelial cells, have a molecular control on renal phosphate excretion and reabsorption. The systemic regulation of phosphate metabolism is a complex multiorgan process, and the identification of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23)-Klotho system as a potent phosphatonin has provided new mechanistic insights into the homeostatic control of phosphate. Hypophosphatemia as a result of an increase in urinary phosphate wasting after activation of the FGF23-Klotho system is a common phenomenon, observed in both animal and human studies, whereas suppression of the FGF23-Klotho system leads to the development of hyperphosphatemia. This article will briefly summarize how delicate interactions of the FGF23-klotho system can regulate systemic phosphate homeostasis.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Mingjun Shi, Jianning Zhang, Henry Quiñones, Carolyn Griffith, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 1 22 (1) 124 - 36 1046-6673 2011/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Soft-tissue calcification is a prominent feature in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and experimental Klotho deficiency, but whether Klotho deficiency is responsible for the calcification in CKD is unknown. Here, wild-type mice with CKD had very low renal, plasma, and urinary levels of Klotho. In humans, we observed a graded reduction in urinary Klotho starting at an early stage of CKD and progressing with loss of renal function. Despite induction of CKD, transgenic mice that overexpressed Klotho had preserved levels of Klotho, enhanced phosphaturia, better renal function, and much less calcification compared with wild-type mice with CKD. Conversely, Klotho-haploinsufficient mice with CKD had undetectable levels of Klotho, worse renal function, and severe calcification. The beneficial effect of Klotho on vascular calcification was a result of more than its effect on renal function and phosphatemia, suggesting a direct effect of Klotho on the vasculature. In vitro, Klotho suppressed Na(+)-dependent uptake of phosphate and mineralization induced by high phosphate and preserved differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells. In summary, Klotho is an early biomarker for CKD, and Klotho deficiency contributes to soft-tissue calcification in CKD. Klotho ameliorates vascular calcification by enhancing phosphaturia, preserving glomerular filtration, and directly inhibiting phosphate uptake by vascular smooth muscle. Replacement of Klotho may have therapeutic potential for CKD.
  • Ming-Chang Hu, Mingjun Shi, Jianning Zhang, Henry Quiñones, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    Kidney international 12 78 (12) 1240 - 51 0085-2538 2010/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is an antiaging substance with pleiotropic actions including regulation of mineral metabolism. It is highly expressed in the kidney and is present in the circulation and urine but its role in acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. We found that ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rodents reduced Klotho in the kidneys, urine, and blood, all of which were restored upon recovery. Reduction in kidney and plasma Klotho levels were earlier than that of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a known biomarker of kidney injury. Patients with AKI were found to have drastic reductions in urinary Klotho. To examine whether Klotho has a pathogenic role, we induced IRI in mice with different endogenous Klotho levels ranging from heterozygous Klotho haploinsufficient, to wild-type (WT), to transgenic mice overexpressing Klotho. Klotho levels in AKI were lower in haploinsufficient and higher in transgenic compared with WT mice. The haploinsufficient mice had more extensive functional and histological alterations compared with WT mice, whereas these changes were milder in overexpressing transgenic mice, implying that Klotho is renoprotective. Rats with AKI given recombinant Klotho had higher Klotho protein, less kidney damage, and lower NGAL than rats with AKI given vehicle. Hence, AKI is a state of acute reversible Klotho deficiency, low Klotho exacerbates kidney injury and its restoration attenuates renal damage and promotes recovery from AKI. Thus, endogenous Klotho not only serves as an early biomarker for AKI but also functions as a renoprotective factor with therapeutic potential.
  • Hiroshi Iwata, Ichiro Manabe, Katsuhito Fujiu, Tetsufumi Yamamoto, Norifumi Takeda, Kosei Eguchi, Akiko Furuya, Makoto Kuro-o, Masataka Sata, Ryozo Nagai
    Circulation 20 122 (20) 2048 - 57 0009-7322 2010/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that bone marrow-derived cells infiltrate the neointima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle (SM) cells; however, technical limitations have hindered clear identification of the lineages of bone marrow-derived "SM cell-like" cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a specific antibody against the definitive SM cell lineage marker SM myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) and mouse lines in which reporter genes were driven by regulatory programs for either SM-MHC or SM α-actin, we demonstrated that although some bone marrow-derived cells express SM α-actin in the wire injury-induced neointima, those cells did not express SM-MHC, even 30 weeks after injury. Likewise, no SM-MHC(+) bone marrow-derived cells were found in vascular lesions in apolipoprotein E(-/-)mice or in a heart transplantation vasculopathy model. Instead, the majority of bone marrow-derived SM α-actin(+) cells were also CD115(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly-6C(+), which is the surface phenotype of inflammatory monocytes. Moreover, adoptively transferred CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) bone marrow cells expressed SM α-actin in the injured artery. Expression of inflammation-related genes was significantly higher in neointimal subregions rich in bone marrow-derived SM α-actin(+) cells than in other regions. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that bone marrow-derived SM α-actin(+) cells are of monocyte/macrophage lineage and are involved in vascular remodeling. It is very unlikely that these cells acquire the definitive SM cell lineage.
  • Stephanie S Fischer, Daniela S Kempe, Christina B Leibrock, Rexhep Rexhepaj, Balasaheb Siraskar, Krishna M Boini, Teresa F Ackermann, Michael Föller, Berthold Hocher, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-O, Florian Lang
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 5 299 (5) F1171-7 - 7 1931-857X 2010/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a membrane protein participating in the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. It participates in the regulation of renal tubular phosphate reabsorption and stimulates renal tubular Ca(2+) reabsorption. Klotho hypomorphic mice (klotho(hm)) suffer from severe growth deficit, rapid aging, and early death, events largely reversed by a vitamin D-deficient diet. The present study explored the role of Klotho deficiency in mineral and electrolyte metabolism. To this end, klotho(hm) mice and wild-type mice (klotho(+/+)) were subjected to a normal (D(+)) or vitamin D-deficient (D(-)) diet or to a vitamin D-deficient diet for 4 wk and then to a normal diet (D(-/+)). At the age of 8 wk, body weight was significantly lower in klotho(hm)D(+) mice than in klotho(+/+)D(+) mice, klotho(hm)D(-) mice, and klotho(hm)D(-/+) mice. Plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3,) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and aldosterone were significantly higher in klotho(hm)D(+) mice than in klotho(+/+)D(+) mice. Plasma volume was significantly smaller in klotho(hm)D(-/+) mice, and plasma urea, Ca(2+), phosphate and Na(+), but not K(+) concentrations were significantly higher in klotho(hm)D(+) mice than in klotho(+/+)D(+) mice. The differences were partially abrogated by a vitamin D-deficient diet. Moreover, the hyperaldosteronism was partially reversed by Ca(2+)-deficient diet. Ussing chamber experiments revealed a marked increase in amiloride-sensitive current across the colonic epithelium, pointing to enhanced epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. A salt-deficient diet tended to decrease and a salt-rich diet significantly increased the life span of klotho(hm)D(+) mice. In conclusion, the present observation disclose that the excessive formation of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in Klotho-deficient mice results in extracellular volume depletion, which significantly contributes to the shortening of life span.
  • Hu MC, Kuro-o M, Moe OW
    Journal of nephrology 23 Suppl 16 S136 - 44 1121-8428 2010/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Klementina Fon Tacer, Angie L Bookout, Xunshan Ding, Hiroshi Kurosu, George B John, Lei Wang, Regina Goetz, Moosa Mohammadi, Makoto Kuro-o, David J Mangelsdorf, Steven A Kliewer
    Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 10 24 (10) 2050 - 64 0888-8809 2010/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Although members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and their receptors have well-established roles in embryogenesis, their contributions to adult physiology remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use real-time quantitative PCR to determine the mRNA expression patterns of all 22 FGFs, the seven principal FGF receptors (FGFRs), and the three members of the Klotho family of coreceptors in 39 different mouse tissues. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of the mRNA expression data reveals that most FGFs and FGFRs fall into two groups the expression of which is enriched in either the central nervous system or reproductive and gastrointestinal tissues. Interestingly, the FGFs that can act as endocrine hormones, including FGF15/19, FGF21, and FGF23, cluster in a third group that does not include any FGFRs, underscoring their roles in signaling between tissues. We further show that the most recently identified Klotho family member, Lactase-like, is highly and selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue and eye and can function as an additional coreceptor for FGF19. This FGF atlas provides an important resource for guiding future studies to elucidate the physiological functions of FGFs in adult animals.
  • Ming Chang Hu, Mingjun Shi, Jianning Zhang, Johanne Pastor, Teruyo Nakatani, Beate Lanske, M Shawkat Razzaque, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Michel G Baum, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson W Moe
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 9 24 (9) 3438 - 50 0892-6638 2010/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho has profound effects on phosphate metabolism, but the mechanisms of how Klotho affects phosphate homeostasis is unknown. We detected Klotho in the proximal tubule cell, brush border, and urinary lumen, where phosphate homeostasis resides. Increasing Klotho in the kidney and urine chronically by transgenic overexpression or acutely by intravenous infusion caused hypophosphatemia, phosphaturia from decreased proximal phosphate reabsorption, and decreased activity and protein of the principal renal phosphate transporter NaPi-2a. The phosphaturic effect was present in FGF23-null mice, indicating a direct action distinct from Klotho's known role as a coreceptor for FGF23. Direct inhibition of NaPi-2a by Klotho was confirmed in cultured cells and in cell-free membrane vesicles characterized by acute inhibition of transport activity followed by decreased cell surface protein. Transport inhibition can be mimicked by recombinant beta-glucuronidase and is associated with proteolytic degradation and reduced surface NaPi-2a. The inhibitory effect of Klotho on NaPi-2a was blocked by beta-glucuronidase inhibitor but not by protease inhibitor. Klotho is a novel phosphaturic substance that acts as an enzyme in the proximal tubule urinary lumen by modifying glycans, which cause decreased transporter activity, followed by proteolytic degradation and possibly internalization of NaPi-2a from the apical membrane.
  • C-C Hsieh, Makoto Kuro-o, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Reynolds Brobey, John Papaconstantinou
    Aging 9 2 (9) 597 - 611 2010/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevated levels of p38 MAPK activity accelerate physiological aging. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the molecular mechanism(s) that link ROS production to activation of the p38 mediated promotion of aging, longevity, and resistance to oxidative stress. We examined Klotho(-/-) (elevated ROS) and Klotho overexpressing mice (low ROS and resistance to ROS) to determine whether the ROS-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK1)-signalosome -> p38 MAPK pathway plays a role in the accelerated aging of Klotho(-/-), and resistance to oxidative stress and extended lifespan in the Klotho overexpressing models. Our results suggest that increased endogenous ROS generated by Klotho(-/-) and resistance to oxidative stress in Klotho overexpression are linked to the regulation of ASK1-signalosome -> p38 activity. We propose that (a) the ASK1-signalosome -> p38 MAPK pathway is activated by oxidative stress due to ablation of the Klotho gene; (b) increased longevity by Klotho overexpression is linked to suppression of the ASK1-signalosome-p38 MAPK activity; (c) the ROS-responsive ASK1-signalosome regulates physiological aging via its regulation of p38 MAPK, through a mechanism that balances the levels of inhibitory vs. activating ASK1-signalosomes. We conclude that the Klotho suppressor-of-aging activity is linked to the ASK1-signalsome, a physiological ROS-sensitive signaling center.
  • Ferenc Izbeki, David T Asuzu, Andrea Lorincz, Michael R Bardsley, Laura N Popko, Kyoung Moo Choi, David L Young, Yujiro Hayashi, David R Linden, Makoto Kuro-o, Gianrico Farrugia, Tamas Ordog
    The Journal of physiology Pt 16 588 (Pt 16) 3101 - 17 0022-3751 2010/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Gastrointestinal functions decline with ageing leading to impaired quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality. Neurodegeneration is believed to underlie ageing-associated dysmotilities but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We used progeric mice deficient in the anti-ageing peptide Klotho to investigate the contribution of key cell types of the gastric musculature to ageing-associated changes in stomach function and the underlying mechanisms. Klotho expression, enteric neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), smooth muscle cells and electrical activity were assessed by immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, 3-dimensional reconstruction, flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting and intracellular recordings. Gastric emptying of solids was analysed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test. Circulating and tissue trophic factors were measured by enzyme immunoassays and quantitative RT-PCR. The role of oxidative stress was investigated in organotypic cultures. Klotho expression was detected in gastric glands, myenteric neurons and smooth muscle cells. Progeric Klotho-deficient mice had profound loss of ICC and ICC stem cells without a significant decrease in neuron counts, expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase or smooth muscle myosin. Slow wave amplitude and nitrergic inhibitory junction potentials were reduced while solid emptying was unchanged. Klotho-deficient mice were marantic and had low insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I and membrane-bound stem cell factor. Klotho deficiency accentuated oxidative stress and ICC loss. We conclude that Klotho-deficient, progeric mice display a gastric phenotype resembling human ageing and involving profound ICC loss. Klotho protects ICC by preserving their precursors, limiting oxidative stress, and maintaining nutritional status and normal levels of trophic factors important for ICC differentiation.
  • Masaya Takahashi, Osamu Togao, Makoto Obara, Marc van Cauteren, Yoshiharu Ohno, Shigehiro Doi, Makoto Kuro-o, Craig Malloy, Connie C Hsia, Ivan Dimitrov
    Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI 2 32 (2) 326 - 33 1053-1807 2010/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence as pulmonary MRI to detect non-uniform disruption of lung architecture that is typical of emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the lungs was conducted with a three-dimensional UTE sequence in transgenic mice with severe emphysema and their wild-type littermates in a 3 Tesla clinical MR system. Measurements of the signal intensity (SI) and transverse relaxation time (T2*) of the lung parenchyma were performed with various echo times (TEs) ranging from 100 micros to 2 ms. RESULTS: Much higher SI of the lung parenchyma was observed at an UTE of 100 micros compared with longer TEs. The emphysematous lungs had reduced SIs and T2* than the controls, in particular at end-expiratory phase. The results suggested that both SI and T2* in lung parenchyma measured with the method represent fractional volume of lung tissue. CONCLUSION: The UTE imaging provided MR signal from the lung parenchyma. Moreover, the UTE sequence was sensitive to emphysematous changes and may provide a direct assessment of lung parenchyma. UTE imaging has the potential to assist detection of localized pathological destruction of lung tissue architecture in emphysema.
  • Osamu Togao, Shigehiro Doi, Makoto Kuro-o, Takao Masaki, Noriaki Yorioka, Masaya Takahashi
    Radiology 3 255 (3) 772 - 80 0033-8419 2010/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PURPOSE: To test, in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), whether the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes during the progression of renal fibrosis and correlates with the histopathologic changes observed in renal fibrogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. A UUO was created in each of 14 mice. In five mice, longitudinal diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging was performed before the UUO (day 0) and on days 3 and 7 after the UUO and was followed by histopathologic analysis. The nine remaining mice were examined with cross-sectional studies on days 0 (n = 4) and 3 (n = 5). ADCs were measured with a spin-echo echo-planar sequence at five b values ranging from 350 to 1200 sec/mm(2). Differences in ADC among the time points and between the sides were assessed by using Tukey-Kramer and Student t tests, respectively. ADC was correlated with cell density and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA, a marker of myofibroblasts) expression at linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Histopathologic examination revealed typical renal fibrosis on the side with UUO. The ADC decreased over time on the UUO side, from (1.02 +/- 0.06 [standard deviation]) x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec on day 0 to (0.70 +/- 0.08) x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec on day 3 (P < .001) and (0.57 +/- 0.10) x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec on day 7 (P < .001). The percentage change in ADC was greater on the UUO side than on the contralateral side on days 3 (29% +/- 9, P = .05) and 7 (44% +/- 11, P < .01). ADC correlated with both increased cell density and increased alpha-SMA expression (P < .001 for both correlations). CONCLUSION: An ADC decrease in renal fibrosis is associated with an increased number of cells, including fibroblasts. ADC has the potential to serve as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker of renal fibrosis.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) 4 25 (4) 583 - 90 0931-041X 2010/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent studies have identified a novel bone-kidney endocrine axis that maintains phosphate homeostasis. When phosphate is in excess, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is secreted from bone and acts on the kidney to promote phosphate excretion into urine and suppress vitamin D synthesis, thereby inducing negative phosphate balance. One critical feature of FGF23 is that it requires Klotho, a single-pass transmembrane protein expressed in renal tubules, as an obligate coreceptor to bind and activate FGF receptors. Several hereditary disorders that exhibit inappropriately high serum FGF23 levels are associated with phosphate wasting and impaired bone mineralization. In contrast, defects in either FGF23 or Klotho are associated with phosphate retention and a premature-aging syndrome. The aging-like phenotypes in Klotho-deficient or FGF23-deficient mice can be rescued by resolving hyperphosphatemia with dietary or genetic manipulation, suggesting a novel concept that phosphate retention accelerates aging. Phosphate retention is universally observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identified as a potent risk of death in epidemiological studies. Thus, the bone-kidney endocrine axis mediated by FGF23 and Klotho has emerged as a novel target of therapeutic interventions in CKD.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Mechanisms of ageing and development 4 131 (4) 270 - 5 0047-6374 2010/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Phosphate homeostasis is maintained primarily by a bone-kidney endocrine axis. When phosphate is in excess, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is secreted from bone and acts on kidney to promote phosphate excretion into urine. FGF23 also reduces serum vitamin D levels to suppress phosphate absorption from intestine. Thus, FGF23 functions as a hormone that induces negative phosphate balance. One critical feature of FGF23 is that it requires Klotho, a single-pass transmembrane protein expressed in renal tubules, as an obligate co-receptor to bind and activate cognate FGF receptors. Importantly, defects in either FGF23 or Klotho not only cause phosphate retention but also a premature-aging syndrome in mice, which can be rescued by resolving hyperphosphatemia. In addition, changes in extracellular and intracellular phosphate concentration affect glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro, which potentially affect aging processes. These findings suggest an unexpected link between inorganic phosphate and aging in mammals.
  • Masaki Eda, Masaki Kuro-o, Hiroyoshi Higuchi, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Hiroko Koike
    Genes & genetic systems 85 (2) 129 - 39 1341-7568 2010/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Although the tandem duplication of mitochondrial (mt) sequences, especially those of the control region (CR), has been detected in metazoan species, few studies have focused on the features of the duplicated sequence itself, such as the gene conversion rate, distribution patterns of the variation, and relative rates of evolution between the copies. To investigate the features of duplicated mt sequences, we partially sequenced the mt genome of 16 Phoebastria albatrosses belonging to three species (P. albatrus, P. nigripes, and P. immutabilis). More than 2,300 base pairs of tandemly-duplicated sequence were shared by all three species. The observed gene arrangement was shared in the three Phoebastria albatrosses and suggests that the duplication event occurred in the common ancestor of the three species. Most of the copies in each individual were identical or nearly identical, and were maintained through frequent gene conversions. By contrast, portions of CR domains I and III had different phylogenetic signals, suggesting that gene conversion had not occurred in those sections after the speciation of the three species. Several lines of data, including the heterogeneity of the rate of molecular evolution, nucleotide differences, and putative secondary structures, suggests that the two sequences in CR domain I are maintained through selection; however, additional studies into the mechanisms of gene conversion and mtDNA synthesis are required to confirm this hypothesis.
  • I Wolf, Y Laitman, T Rubinek, L Abramovitz, I Novikov, R Beeri, M Kuro-O, H P Koeffler, R Catane, L S Freedman, E Levy-Lahad, B Y Karlan, E Friedman, B Kaufman
    Oncogene 29 (1) 26 - 33 2010/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a transmembrane protein that can be shed and act as a circulating hormone and is a putative tumor suppressor in breast cancer. A functional variant of KLOTHO (KL-VS) contains two amino acid substitutions F352V and C370S and shows reduced activity. Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 substantially increase lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Yet, penetrance of deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is incomplete even among carriers of identical mutations. We examined the association between KL-VS and cancer risk among 1115 Ashkenazi Jewish women: 236 non-carriers, 631 BRCA1 (185delAG, 5382insC) carriers and 248 BRCA2 (6174delT) carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, heterozygosity for the KL-VS allele was associated with increased breast and ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence intervals 1.08-1.83, P=0.01) and younger age at breast cancer diagnosis (median age 48 vs 43 P=0.04). KLOTHO and BRCA2 are located on 13q12, and we identified linkage disequilibrium between KL-VS and BRCA2 6174delT mutation. Studies in breast cancer cells showed reduced growth inhibitory activity and reduced secretion of klotho F352V compared with wild-type klotho. These data suggest KL-VS as a breast and ovarian cancer risk modifier among BRCA1 mutation carriers. If validated in additional cohorts, the presence of KL-VS may serve as a predictor of cancer risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers.
  • Regina Goetz, Yuji Nakada, Ming Chang Hu, Hiroshi Kurosu, Lei Wang, Teruyo Nakatani, Mingjun Shi, Anna V Eliseenkova, Mohammed S Razzaque, Orson W Moe, Makoto Kuro-o, Moosa Mohammadi
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1 107 (1) 407 - 12 0027-8424 2010/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption by activating FGF receptor (FGFR) 1c in a Klotho-dependent fashion. The phosphaturic activity of FGF23 is abrogated by proteolytic cleavage at the RXXR motif that lies at the boundary between the FGF core homology domain and the 72-residue-long C-terminal tail of FGF23. Here, we show that the soluble ectodomains of FGFR1c and Klotho are sufficient to form a ternary complex with FGF23 in vitro. The C-terminal tail of FGF23 mediates binding of FGF23 to a de novo site generated at the composite FGFR1c-Klotho interface. Consistent with this finding, the isolated 72-residue-long C-terminal tail of FGF23 impairs FGF23 signaling by competing with full-length ligand for binding to the binary FGFR-Klotho complex. Injection of the FGF23 C-terminal tail peptide into healthy rats inhibits renal phosphate excretion and induces hyperphosphatemia. In a mouse model of renal phosphate wasting attributable to high FGF23, the FGF23 C-terminal peptide reduces phosphate excretion, leading to an increase in serum phosphate concentration. Our data indicate that proteolytic cleavage at the RXXR motif abrogates FGF23 activity by a dual mechanism: by removing the binding site for the binary FGFR-Klotho complex that resides in the C-terminal region of FGF23, and by generating an endogenous inhibitor of FGF23. We propose that peptides derived from the C-terminal tail of FGF23 or peptidomimetics and small-molecule organomimetics of the C-terminal tail can be used as therapeutics to treat renal phosphate wasting.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 2 459 (2) 333 - 43 0031-6768 2010/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene was identified as an "aging-suppressor" gene in mice that accelerates aging when disrupted and extends life span when overexpressed. It encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and is expressed primarily in renal tubules. The extracellular domain of Klotho protein is secreted into blood and urine by ectodomain shedding. The two forms of Klotho protein, membrane Klotho and secreted Klotho, exert distinct functions. Membrane Klotho forms a complex with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors and functions as an obligate co-receptor for FGF23, a bone-derived hormone that induces phosphate excretion into urine. Mice lacking Klotho or FGF23 not only exhibit phosphate retention but also display a premature-aging syndrome, revealing an unexpected link between phosphate metabolism and aging. Secreted Klotho functions as a humoral factor that regulates activity of multiple glycoproteins on the cell surface, including ion channels and growth factor receptors such as insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors. Potential contribution of these multiple activities of Klotho protein to aging processes is discussed.
  • David J Friedman, Maryam Afkarian, Hector Tamez, Ishir Bhan, Tamara Isakova, Myles Wolf, Elizabeth Ankers, Jun Ye, Marcello Tonelli, Carmine Zoccali, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson Moe, S Ananth Karumanchi, Ravi Thadhani
    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 11 24 (11) 1847 - 55 0884-0431 2009/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer exceptionally high mortality rates in their first year of chronic hemodialysis. Both vitamin D and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 levels correlate with survival in these patients. Klotho is a protein in the vitamin D/FGF-23 signaling pathway that has been linked with accelerated aging and early mortality in animal models. We therefore hypothesized that genetic variation in the Klotho gene might be associated with survival in subjects with ESRD. We tested the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Klotho gene and mortality in a cohort of ESRD patients during their first year on hemodialysis (n = 1307 white and Asian). We found a significant association between the CC genotype of one tag SNP, rs577912, and increased risk for 1-yr mortality (RR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.59; p = 0.003). This effect was even more marked among patients who were not treated with activated vitamin D supplementation (HR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.18-5.34; p = 0.005). In lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from HapMap subjects, the CC genotype was associated with a 16-21% lower Klotho expression compared with the AA/AC genotype. Our data suggest that a specific Klotho variant (rs577912) is linked to survival in ESRD patients initiating chronic hemodialysis and that therapy with activated vitamin D may modify this risk.
  • Laura Bloch, Olga Sineshchekova, Daniela Reichenbach, Karina Reiss, Paul Saftig, Makoto Kuro-o, Christoph Kaether
    FEBS letters 19 583 (19) 3221 - 4 0014-5793 2009/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is an anti-aging protein with different functions of the full-length membrane protein and the secreted hormone-like form. Using overexpression and knock-down approaches as well as embryonic fibroblasts of knock-out mice we present evidence that Klotho is shedded by the alpha-secretases ADAM10 and 17 as well as by the beta-secretase beta-APP cleaving enzyme 1. The remaining membrane-bound fragment is a substrate for regulated intramembrane proteolysis by gamma-secretase. Our data suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting these proteases should be carefully analyzed for potential side effects on Klotho-mediated physiological processes.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Biochimica et biophysica acta 10 1790 (10) 1049 - 58 0006-3002 2009/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein that forms a complex with multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors and functions as an obligatory co-receptor for FGF23, a bone-derived hormone that induces negative phosphate balance. Defects in either Klotho or Fgf23 gene expression cause not only phosphate retention but also a premature-aging syndrome in mice, unveiling a potential link between phosphate metabolism and aging. In addition, the extracellular domain of Klotho protein is clipped on the cell surface and secreted into blood stream, potentially functioning as an endocrine factor. The secreted Klotho protein has a putative sialidase activity that modifies glycans on the cell surface, which may explain the ability of secreted Klotho protein to regulate activity of multiple ion channels and growth factors including insulin, IGF-1, and Wnt. Secreted Klotho protein also protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress through a mechanism yet to be identified. Thus, the transmembrane and secreted forms of Klotho protein have distinct functions, which may collectively affect aging processes in mammals.
  • Daniela S Kempe, Teresa F Ackermann, Stephanie S Fischer, Saisudha Koka, Krishna M Boini, Hasan Mahmud, Michael Föller, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-O, Florian Lang
    Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology 3 458 (3) 503 - 12 0031-6768 2009/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho, a membrane protein mainly expressed in parathyroid glands, kidney, and choroid plexus, counteracts aging and increases the life span. Accordingly, life span is significantly shorter in Klotho-deficient mice (klotho(-/-)) than in their wild-type littermates (klotho(+/+)). The pleotropic effects of Klotho include inhibition of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)(1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) formation. Vitamin D-deficient diet reverses the shortening of life span in klotho(-/-) mice. In a variety of cells, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulates Ca(2+) entry. In erythrocytes, increased Ca(2+) entry stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. The present study explored the putative impact of Klotho on eryptosis. According to Fluo3 fluorescence, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was significantly larger in klotho(-/-) erythrocytes as compared to klotho(+/+) erythrocytes. According to annexin V-binding, phosphatidylserine exposure was significantly enhanced, and according to forward scatter, cell volume significantly decreased in klotho(-/-) erythrocytes as compared to klotho(+/+) erythrocytes. Energy depletion (13 h glucose depletion) and oxidative stress (35 min 1 mM tert-butyl-hydroxyl-peroxide [tert-BOOH]) increased phosphatidylserine exposure to values again significantly larger in klotho(-/-) erythrocytes as compared to klotho(+/+) erythrocytes. Reticulocyte number was significantly increased in klotho (-/-) mice, pointing to enhanced erythrocyte turnover. Vitamin D-deficient diet reversed the enhanced Ca(2+) entry and annexin V-binding of klotho(-/-) erythrocytes. The present observations reveal a novel function of Klotho, i.e., the at least partially vitamin D-dependent regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity in and suicidal death of erythrocytes.
  • Seung-Kuy Cha, Ming-Chang Hu, Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-o, Orson Moe, Chou-Long Huang
    Molecular pharmacology 1 76 (1) 38 - 46 0026-895X 2009/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is an aging-suppression protein predominantly expressed in kidney, parathyroid glands, and choroids plexus of the brain. The extracellular domain of Klotho, a type-1 membrane protein, is secreted into urine and blood and may function as an endocrine or paracrine hormone. The functional role of Klotho in the kidney remains largely unknown. Recent studies reported that treatment by the extracellular domain of Klotho (KLe) increases cell-surface abundance of transient receptor potential vanilloid type isoform 5, an epithelial Ca(2+) channel critical for Ca(2+) reabsorption in the kidney. Whether Klotho regulates surface expression of other channels in the kidney is not known. Here, we report that KLe treatment increases the cell-membrane abundance of the renal K(+) channel renal outer medullary potassium channel 1 (ROMK1) by removing terminal sialic acids from N-glycan of the channel. Removal of sialic acids exposes underlying disaccharide galactose-N-acetylglucosamine, a ligand for a ubiquitous galactoside-binding lectin galectin-1. Binding to galectin-1 at the extracellular surface prevents clathrin-mediated endocytosis of ROMK1 and leads to accumulation of functional channel on the plasma membrane. Intravenous administration of KLe increases the level of Klotho in urine and increases urinary excretion of K(+). These results suggest that Klotho may have a broader function in the regulation of ion transport in the kidney.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 6 24 (6) 1705 - 8 0931-0509 2009/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Michiko Inuma, Yoshitaka Obara, Masaki Kuro-o
    Zoological science 26 (5) 344 - 8 2009/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Chromosomes stained with fluorochromes, including quinacrine mustard (QM), emit the brightest fluorescence immediately after exposure to excitation light, and the fluorescence gradually fades with an increase in exposure time. However, in the QM-stained chromosomes of the small Japanese field mouse Apodemus argenteus, most C-heterochromatic regions emit weak fluorescence immediately after exposure to blue light, and they become brightly fluorescent by prolonged exposure (delayed QM fluorescence). We proposed recently that the delayed QM fluorescence is somehow related to nicks produced in C-heterochromatic DNA by blue light irradiation. To test this possibility, we examined the chromosomal distribution of nicks by in-situ nick translation and changes, if any, in the QM fluorescence pattern after methylene blue (MB) -mediated photooxidation, which is considered to induce nicks in chromosomal DNA. It was found that C-heterochromatic regions fluoresced brightly without any delay after exposure to blue light, and that nicks increased considerably in the same regions after the MB-mediated photooxidation. It seems, therefore, that photooxidation and strand breaks in DNA (including nicks) are responsible for the induction of delayed QM fluorescence. Trypsin digestion, on the other hand, abolished delayed QM fluorescence. Thus, not only DNA but also chromosomal protein(s) are involved in the unusual sequence of QM fluorescence patterns in A. argenteus.
  • Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-O
    Molecular and cellular endocrinology 1 299 (1) 72 - 8 0303-7207 2009/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and functions as an aging-suppressor gene, which extends lifespan when overexpressed and accelerates the development of aging-like phenotypes when disrupted in mice. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis. It has been shown that Klotho-deficient mice and Fgf23 knockout mice exhibit identical phenotypes. This observation led to the identification of Klotho as a cofactor essential for interactions between FGF23 and FGF receptors. In addition to the Klotho-FGF23 axis, recent studies has shown that betaKlotho, a Klotho family protein, also functions as a cofactor required for FGF19 and FGF21 signaling and determines the tissue-specific metabolic activities of FGF19 and FGF21. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding of Klotho and betaKlotho function in the regulation of tissue-specific metabolic activity of the endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23).
  • Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-o
    BIOFACTORS 35 (1) 52 - 60 0951-6433 2009/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) function as hormones that maintain specific metabolic states by controlling homeostasis of bile acid, glucose, fatty acid, phosphate, and vitamin D. Endocrine FGFs exert their biological activity through a common design of coreceptor system consisting of the Klotho gene family of transmembrane proteins and cognate FGF receptors. Moreover, expression of endocrine FGFs is regulated by nuclear receptors whose lipophilic ligands are generated under the control of these hormones in the target organs. Thus, novel endocrine axes have emerged that regulate divers e metabolic processes through feedback loops composed of the FGF, Klotho, FGF receptor, and nuclear receptor gene families. This review summarizes the role of Klotho family proteins in the regulation of metabolic activity and expression of the endocrine FGFs. (C) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Volume 35, Number 1, January/February 2009, Pages 52-60. E-mail: makoto.kuro-o@utsouthwestern.edu
  • I Wolf, S Levanon-Cohen, S Bose, H Ligumsky, B Sredni, H Kanety, M Kuro-o, B Karlan, B Kaufman, H P Koeffler, T Rubinek
    Oncogene 27 (56) 7094 - 105 2008/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is an anti-aging gene, which has been shown to inhibit the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways in mice hepatocytes and myocytes. As IGF-1 and insulin regulate proliferation, survival and metastasis of breast cancer, we studied klotho expression and activities in human breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry analysis of klotho expression in breast tissue arrays revealed high klotho expression in normal breast samples, but very low expression in breast cancer. In cancer samples, high klotho expression was associated with smaller tumor size and reduced KI67 staining. Forced expression of klotho reduced proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, whereas klotho silencing in MCF-7 cells, which normally express klotho, enhanced proliferation. Moreover, forced expression of klotho in these cells, or treatment with soluble klotho, inhibited the activation of IGF-1 and insulin pathways, and induced upregulation of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, a breast cancer growth inhibitor that is negatively regulated by the IGF-1-AKT axis. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed an interaction between klotho and the IGF-1 receptor. Klotho is also a known modulator of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway, a pathway that inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells. Studies in breast cancer cells revealed increased activation of the FGF pathway by basic FGF following klotho overexpression. Klotho did not affect activation of the epidermal growth factor pathway in breast cancer cells. These data suggest klotho as a potential tumor suppressor and identify it as an inhibitor of the IGF-1 pathway and activator of the FGF pathway in human breast cancer.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM 7 19 (7) 239 - 45 1043-2760 2008/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) control a variety of physiological processes including suppression of bile acid synthesis in hepatocytes, promotion of lipolysis in adipocytes, and inhibition of phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D biosynthesis in renal tubular cells. Endocrine FGFs require the Klotho gene family of transmembrane proteins as co-receptors to bind cognate FGF receptors. Importantly, expression of endocrine FGFs is regulated by nuclear receptors whose lipophilic ligands are generated under the control of these hormones in their target organs. Thus, novel endocrine axes have emerged that regulate diverse metabolic processes through feedback loops composed of the FGF, Klotho, and nuclear receptor gene families. This review covers roles of Klotho family proteins in the regulation of activity and expression of endocrine FGFs.
  • Toshiro Kuroki, Shinji Izumiyama, Kenji Yagita, Yumi Une, Hideki Hayashidani, Masaki Kuro-o, Akira Mori, Hajime Moriguchi, Michihisa Toriba, Toru Ishibashi, Takuro Endo
    Parasitology research 103 (4) 801 - 5 2008/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in snakes in Japan. Fecal samples or intestinal contents of 469 snakes, consisting of five species, were analyzed and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected only from the Japanese grass snake Rhabdophis tigrinus. The mean prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in Japanese grass snakes was approximately 26% in the region studied. Histopathological observations revealed that the organism caused proliferative enteritis in the small intestine. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the small subunit rRNA gene has shown that the partial sequence of Cryptosporidium sp. isolated from the snakes was identical to that of the Cryptosporidium snake genotype W11 from New Guinea viper boa.
  • Damian Medici, Mohammed S Razzaque, Stephelynn Deluca, Trent L Rector, Bo Hou, Kihwa Kang, Regina Goetz, Moosa Mohammadi, Makoto Kuro-O, Bjorn R Olsen, Beate Lanske
    The Journal of cell biology 3 182 (3) 459 - 65 0021-9525 2008/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and Klotho are secretory proteins that regulate mineral-ion metabolism. Fgf-23(-/-) or Klotho(-/-) knockout mice exhibit several pathophysiological processes consistent with premature aging including severe atrophy of tissues. We show that the signal transduction pathways initiated by FGF-23-Klotho prevent tissue atrophy by stimulating proliferation and preventing apoptosis caused by excessive systemic vitamin D. Because serum levels of active vitamin D are greatly increased upon genetic ablation of Fgf-23 or Klotho, we find that these molecules have a dual role in suppression of apoptotic actions of vitamin D through both negative regulation of 1alpha-hydroxylase expression and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent inhibition of caspase activity. These data provide new insights into the physiological roles of FGF-23 and Klotho.
  • Seung-Kuy Cha, Bernardo Ortega, Hiroshi Kurosu, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-O, Chou-Long Huang
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 28 105 (28) 9805 - 10 0027-8424 2008/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Klotho is a mammalian senescence-suppression protein that has homology with glycosidases. The extracellular domain of Klotho is secreted into urine and blood and may function as a humoral factor. Klotho-deficient mice have accelerated aging and imbalance of ion homeostasis. Klotho treatment increases cell-surface abundance of the renal epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 by modifying its N-linked glycans. However, the precise sugar substrate and mechanism for regulation by Klotho is not known. Here, we report that the extracellular domain of Klotho activates plasma-membrane resident TRPV5 through removing terminal sialic acids from their glycan chains. Removal of sialic acids exposes underlying disaccharide galactose-N-acetylglucosamine, a ligand for a ubiquitous galactoside-binding lectin galectin-1. Binding to galectin-1 lattice at the extracellular surface leads to accumulation of functional TRPV5 on the plasma membrane. Knockdown of beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-1) by RNA interference, but not other sialyltransferases, in a human cell line prevents the regulation by Klotho. Moreover, the regulation by Klotho is absent in a hamster cell line that lacks endogenous ST6Gal-1, but is restored by forced expression of recombinant ST6Gal-1. Thus, Klotho participates in specific removal of alpha2,6-linked sialic acids and regulates cell surface retention of TRPV5 through this activity. This action of Klotho represents a novel mechanism for regulation of the activity of cell-surface glycoproteins and likely contributes to maintenance of calcium balance by Klotho.
  • Hiroshi Kurosu, Makoto Kuro-o
    Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 4 17 (4) 368 - 72 1062-4821 2008/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent progress in understanding of Klotho and betaKlotho function in the regulation of tissue-specific metabolic activity of the endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23). RECENT FINDINGS: The Klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and functions as an aging-suppressor gene, which extends lifespan when overexpressed and accelerates the development of aging-like phenotypes when disrupted in mice. FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. It has been shown that Klotho-deficient mice and FGF23 knockout mice exhibit identical phenotypes. This observation led to the identification of Klotho as a cofactor essential for the interaction between FGF23 and fibroblast growth factor receptors. In addition to the Klotho-FGF23 axis, recent studies have shown that betaKlotho, a Klotho family protein, also functions as a cofactor required for FGF19 and FGF21 signaling and determines tissue-specific metabolic activities of FGF19 and FGF21. SUMMARY: Recent mouse genetic studies have broadened our understanding of molecular pathways involved in mineral and bile acid homeostasis regulated by FGF23 and FGF19, respectively. The FGF19 subfamily of ligands requires the Klotho gene family of transmembrane proteins for their tissue-specific bioactivity. Further investigations on endocrine axes mediated by the Klotho family and FGF19 subfamily members are expected to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which the endocrine fibroblast growth factors regulate bile acid, energy, and phosphate/vitamin D metabolism.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Biological chemistry 3 389 (3) 233 - 41 1431-6730 2008/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene functions as an aging-suppressor gene that extends life span when overexpressed and accelerates aging-like phenotypes when disrupted in mice. The klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein that binds to multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors and functions as a co-receptor for FGF23, a bone-derived hormone that suppresses phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D biosynthesis in the kidney. In addition, the extracellular domain of Klotho protein is shed and secreted, potentially functioning as a humoral factor. The secreted Klotho protein can regulate multiple growth factor signaling pathways, including insulin/IGF-1 and Wnt, and the activity of multiple ion channels. Klotho protein also protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress, yet the precise mechanism underlying these activities remains to be determined. Thus, understanding of Klotho protein function is expected to provide new insights into the molecular basis for aging, phosphate/vitamin D metabolism, cancer and stem cell biology.
  • Yan G Ni, Na Wang, Dian J Cao, Nita Sachan, David J Morris, Robert D Gerard, Makoto Kuro-O, Beverly A Rothermel, Joseph A Hill
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 51 104 (51) 20517 - 22 0027-8424 2007/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are rapidly expanding public health problems. Acting through the PI3K/Akt pathway, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inactivate FoxO transcription factors, a class of highly conserved proteins important in numerous physiological functions. However, even as FoxO is a downstream target of insulin, FoxO factors also control upstream signaling elements governing insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Here, we report that sustained activation of either FoxO1 or FoxO3 in cardiac myocytes increases basal levels of Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. FoxO-activated Akt directly interacts with and phosphorylates FoxO, providing feedback inhibition. We reported previously that FoxO factors attenuate cardiomyocyte calcineurin (PP2B) activity. We now show that calcineurin forms a complex with Akt and inhibition of calcineurin enhances Akt phosphorylation. In addition, FoxO activity suppresses protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and disrupts Akt-PP2A and Akt-calcineurin interactions. Repression of Akt-PP2A/B interactions and phosphatase activities contributes, at least in part, to FoxO-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity. Resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, increases the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 and triggers Akt phosphorylation in heart. Importantly, FoxO-mediated increases in Akt activity diminish insulin signaling, as manifested by reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced membrane translocation of Glut4, and decreased insulin-triggered glucose uptake. Also, inactivation of the gene coding for FoxO3 enhances insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, this study demonstrates that changes in FoxO activity have a dose-responsive repressive effect on insulin signaling in cardiomyocytes through inhibition of protein phosphatases, which leads to altered Akt activation, reduced insulin sensitivity, and impaired glucose metabolism.
  • Orhan K Oz, Asghar Hajibeigi, Kevin Howard, Carolyn L Cummins, Monique van Abel, Rene Jm Bindels, R Ann Word, Makoto Kuro-o, Charles Y C Pak, Joseph E Zerwekh
    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 12 22 (12) 1893 - 902 0884-0431 2007/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    UNLABELLED: Kidney stones increase after menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. ArKO mice have hypercalciuria and lower levels of calcium transport proteins, whereas levels of the klotho protein are elevated. Thus, estrogen deficiency is sufficient to cause altered renal calcium handling. INTRODUCTION: The incidence of renal stones increases in women after menopause, implicating a possible role for estrogen deficiency. We used the aromatase deficient (ArKO) mouse, a model of estrogen deficiency, to test the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency would increase urinary calcium excretion and alter the expression of molecular regulators of renal calcium reabsorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female wildtype (WT), ArKO, and estradiol-treated ArKO mice (n = 5-12/group) were used to measure urinary calcium in the fed and fasting states, relative expression level of some genes involved in calcium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule by real-time PCR, and protein expression by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) activity was measured in kidney membrane preparations. ANOVA was used to test for differences between groups followed by posthoc analysis with Dunnett's test. RESULTS: Compared with WT, urinary Ca:Cr ratios were elevated in ArKO mice, renal mRNA levels of transient receptor potential cation channel vallinoid subfamily member 5 (TRPV5), TRPV6, calbindin-D28k, the Na+/Ca+ exchanger (NCX1), and the PMCA1b were significantly decreased, and klotho mRNA and protein levels were elevated. Estradiol treatment of ArKO mice normalized urinary calcium excretion, renal mRNA levels of TRPV5, calbindin-D(28k), PMCA1b, and klotho, as well as protein levels of calbindin-D28k and Klotho. ArKO mice treated with estradiol had significantly greater PMCA activity than either untreated ArKO mice or WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen deficiency caused by aromatase inactivation is sufficient for renal calcium loss. Changes in estradiol levels are associated with coordinated changes in expression of many proteins involved in distal tubule calcium reabsorption. Estradiol seems to act at the genomic level by increasing or decreasing (klotho) protein expression and nongenomically by increasing PMCA activity. PMCA, not NCX1, is likely responsible for extruding calcium in response to in vivo estradiol hormonal challenge. These data provide potential mechanisms for regulation of renal calcium handling in response to changes in serum estrogen levels.
  • Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Hillel Galitzer, Vardit Lavi-Moshayoff, Regina Goetz, Makoto Kuro-o, Moosa Mohammadi, Roy Sirkis, Tally Naveh-Many, Justin Silver
    The Journal of clinical investigation 12 117 (12) 4003 - 8 0021-9738 2007/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Phosphate homeostasis is maintained by a counterbalance between efflux from the kidney and influx from intestine and bone. FGF23 is a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone that acts on the kidney to increase phosphate excretion and suppress biosynthesis of vitamin D. FGF23 signals with highest efficacy through several FGF receptors (FGFRs) bound by the transmembrane protein Klotho as a coreceptor. Since most tissues express FGFR, expression of Klotho determines FGF23 target organs. Here we identify the parathyroid as a target organ for FGF23 in rats. We show that the parathyroid gland expressed Klotho and 2 FGFRs. The administration of recombinant FGF23 led to an increase in parathyroid Klotho levels. In addition, FGF23 activated the MAPK pathway in the parathyroid through ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased early growth response 1 mRNA levels. Using both rats and in vitro rat parathyroid cultures, we show that FGF23 suppressed both parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and PTH gene expression. The FGF23-induced decrease in PTH secretion was prevented by a MAPK inhibitor. These data indicate that FGF23 acts directly on the parathyroid through the MAPK pathway to decrease serum PTH. This bone-parathyroid endocrine axis adds a new dimension to the understanding of mineral homeostasis.
  • Hiroshi Iwata, Ichire Manabe, Katsuhito Fujiu, Tetsufumi Yamamoto, Norifurni Takeda, Makoto Kuro-O, Masataka Sata, Ryozo Nagai
    CIRCULATION 116 (16) 71 - 71 0009-7322 2007/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Hiroshi Kurosu, Mihwa Choi, Yasushi Ogawa, Addie S Dickson, Regina Goetz, Anna V Eliseenkova, Moosa Mohammadi, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Steven A Kliewer, Makoto Kuro-o
    The Journal of biological chemistry 37 282 (37) 26687 - 95 0021-9258 2007/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily of ligands, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, function as hormones that regulate bile acid, fatty acid, glucose, and phosphate metabolism in target organs through activating FGF receptors (FGFR1-4). We demonstrated that Klotho and betaKlotho, homologous single-pass transmembrane proteins that bind to FGFRs, are required for metabolic activity of FGF23 and FGF21, respectively. Here we show that, like FGF21, FGF19 also requires betaKlotho. Both FGF19 and FGF21 can signal through FGFR1-3 bound by betaKlotho and increase glucose uptake in adipocytes expressing FGFR1. Additionally, both FGF19 and FGF21 bind to the betaKlotho-FGFR4 complex; however, only FGF19 signals efficiently through FGFR4. Accordingly, FGF19, but not FGF21, activates FGF signaling in hepatocytes that primarily express FGFR4 and reduces transcription of CYP7A1 that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. We conclude that the expression of betaKlotho, in combination with particular FGFR isoforms, determines the tissue-specific metabolic activities of FGF19 and FGF21.
  • Michiko Inuma, Yoshitaka Obara, Masaki Kuro-o
    Zoological science 24 (6) 588 - 95 0289-0003 2007/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    "Delayed QM-fluorescence" refers to the unusual kinetics of fluorescence from most of the C-heterochromatic regions of the chromosomes of the small Japanese field mouse Apodemus argenteus. When stained with quinacrine mustard (QM-stained), these C-heterochromatic regions emit weak fluorescence immediately after exposure to blue light (BL); they emit bright fluorescence within a few minutes; and the intensity of the fluorescence gradually decreases after maximum fluorescence has been recorded. To elucidate the mechanism of this phenomenon, we used acridine orange staining (AO-staining) and a modified version of the in situ nick-translation method. Focusing on the large C-heterochromatic region (C-block) of the X chromosome, we noted that AO-stained C-blocks emitted greenish fluorescence, while QM-stained and BL-exposed (QM-BL-processed) C-blocks emitted reddish fluorescence upon AO-staining after removal of QM. These findings suggested that the C-block DNA of A. argenteus might undergo a structural change, such as strand breaks, during QM-BL processing. Application of the modified in situ nick-translation method revealed the generation of an appreciable number of nicks in the C-block DNA by QM-BL processing. No such nick formation was observed in the C-blocks of three other mammalian species: Apodemus peninsulae, Microtus montebelli, and Urotrichus talpoides. Our findings support the hypothesis that nick formation due to exposure to BL might play a primary role in inducing delayed QM-fluorescence in the C-blocks of A. argenteus. On the basis of the present and earlier findings, we propose a probable mechanism for delayed QM-fluorescence in A. argenteus chromosomes.
  • Regina Goetz, Andrew Beenken, Omar A Ibrahimi, Juliya Kalinina, Shaun K Olsen, Anna V Eliseenkova, ChongFeng Xu, Thomas A Neubert, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Xijie Yu, Kenneth E White, Takeshi Inagaki, Steven A Kliewer, Masaya Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kurosu, Yasushi Ogawa, Makoto Kuro-o, Beate Lanske, Mohammed S Razzaque, Moosa Mohammadi
    Molecular and cellular biology 9 27 (9) 3417 - 28 0270-7306 2007/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Unique among fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, -21, and -23 act in an endocrine fashion to regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis. These FGFs require the presence of Klotho/betaKlotho in their target tissues. Here, we present the crystal structures of FGF19 alone and FGF23 in complex with sucrose octasulfate, a disaccharide chemically related to heparin. The conformation of the heparin-binding region between beta strands 10 and 12 in FGF19 and FGF23 diverges completely from the common conformation adopted by paracrine-acting FGFs. A cleft between this region and the beta1-beta2 loop, the other heparin-binding region, precludes direct interaction between heparin/heparan sulfate and backbone atoms of FGF19/23. This reduces the heparin-binding affinity of these ligands and confers endocrine function. Klotho/betaKlotho have evolved as a compensatory mechanism for the poor ability of heparin/heparan sulfate to promote binding of FGF19, -21, and -23 to their cognate receptors.
  • Yasushi Ogawa, Hiroshi Kurosu, Masaya Yamamoto, Animesh Nandi, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Regina Goetz, Anna V Eliseenkova, Moosa Mohammadi, Makoto Kuro-o
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 18 104 (18) 7432 - 7 0027-8424 2007/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a liver-derived endocrine factor that stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes. Here, we show that FGF21 activity depends on betaKlotho, a single-pass transmembrane protein whose expression is induced during differentiation from preadipocytes to adipocytes. BetaKlotho physically interacts with FGF receptors 1c and 4, thereby increasing the ability of these FGF receptors to bind FGF21 and activate the MAP kinase cascade. Knockdown of betaKlotho expression by siRNA in adipocytes diminishes glucose uptake induced by FGF21. Importantly, administration of FGF21 into mice induces MAP kinase phosphorylation in white adipose tissue and not in tissues without betaKlotho expression. Thus, betaKlotho functions as a cofactor essential for FGF21 activity.
  • Dullei Min, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Makoto Kuro-O, Georg A Holländer, Bruce R Blazar, Kenneth I Weinberg
    Blood 6 109 (6) 2529 - 37 0006-4971 2007/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Age-related thymopoietic insufficiency has been proposed to be related to either defects in lymphohematopoietic progenitors or the thymic microenvironment. In this study, we examined whether keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), an epithelial cell-specific growth factor, could increase thymopoietic capacity in aged mice by restoration of the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). The thymic cellularity in KGF-treated aged mice increased about 4-fold compared to placebo-treated mice, resulting in an equivalent thymic cellularity to young mice. Enhanced thymopoiesis was maintained for about 2 months after a single course of KGF, and sustained improvement was achieved by administration of monthly courses of KGF. With the enhanced thymopoiesis after KGF treatment, the number of naive CD4 T cells in the periphery and T-cell-dependent antibody production improved in aged mice. KGF induced increased numbers of TECs and intrathymic interleukin-7 (IL-7) production and reorganization of cortical and medullary architecture. Furthermore, KGF enhanced thymopoiesis and normalized TEC organization in klotho (kl/kl) mice, a model of premature degeneration and aging, which displays thymopoietic defects. The result suggests that TEC damage is pathophysiologically important in thymic aging, and KGF therapy may be clinically useful in improving thymopoiesis and immune function in the elderly.
  • Orhan K. Oz, Aspar Hajibeigi, Carolyn Cummins, Monique van Abel, Ren J. Bindels, Makoto Kuro-o, Charles Y. C. Pak, Joseph E. Zerwekh
    RENAL STONE DISEASE 900 389 - + 0094-243X 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-DNK, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCXI), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCAlb) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCAlb and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced-by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.
  • Kevin P. Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-o
    HORMONE RESEARCH 67 191 - 203 0301-0163 2007 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Suppression of aging and its effects is a far-reaching dream of human beings. To turn this dream into a scientific reality, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the aging process. A coherent understanding of these mechanisms is expected to allow us to develop rational strategies for slowing the aging process, which is the most significant risk factor for many age-related disorders including diabetes, heart attack, stroke, osteoporosis, cancer, and dementia. Therefore, any remedy against the progression of aging may reduce and/or delay premature death and disability caused by multiple age-related diseases simultaneously. This could lead to a tremendous increase in both the length and quality of human life. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics 6 43 (6) 674 - 81 0300-9173 2006/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Makoto Kuro-o
    Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 4 15 (4) 437 - 41 1062-4821 2006/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the most recent findings on Klotho in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) signaling and phosphate/calcium homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: The klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and functions as an aging-suppressor gene, which extends life span when overexpressed and accelerates the development of aging-like phenotypes when disrupted in mice. FGF23 is a hormone that suppresses phosphate reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. Recent studies have shown that Klotho mice and Fgf23 mice exhibit identical phenotypes including hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia in addition to the aging-like syndrome. This may be explained by the fact that Klotho binds to multiple FGF receptors and increases their affinity to FGF23. Another Klotho protein function is to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid-5 - a calcium channel involved in calcium reabsorption in the kidney. Klotho protein can modify sugar chains on transient receptor potential vanilloid-5 through its activity as a beta-glucuronidase, preventing the calcium channel from internalization and inactivation. SUMMARY: Klotho protein binds to fibroblast growth factor receptors and functions as a regulator of FGF23 signaling. It also functions as an enzyme that modifies sugar chains of transient receptor potential vanilloid-5 and regulates its activity. Klotho is a multi-functional protein that regulates phosphate/calcium metabolism as well as aging.
  • Hiroshi Kurosu, Yasushi Ogawa, Masayoshi Miyoshi, Masaya Yamamoto, Animesh Nandi, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Michel G Baum, Susan Schiavi, Ming-Chang Hu, Orson W Moe, Makoto Kuro-o
    The Journal of biological chemistry 10 281 (10) 6120 - 3 0021-9258 2006/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The aging suppressor gene Klotho encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein. Klotho-deficient mice exhibit a variety of aging-like phenotypes, many of which are similar to those observed in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23)-deficient mice. To test the possibility that Klotho and FGF23 may function in a common signal transduction pathway(s), we investigated whether Klotho is involved in FGF signaling. Here we show that Klotho protein directly binds to multiple FGF receptors (FGFRs). The Klotho-FGFR complex binds to FGF23 with higher affinity than FGFR or Klotho alone. In addition, Klotho significantly enhanced the ability of FGF23 to induce phosphorylation of FGF receptor substrate and ERK in various types of cells. Thus, Klotho functions as a cofactor essential for activation of FGF signaling by FGF23.
  • A Yoshimura, A Nakata, M Kuro-o, Y Obara, Y Ando
    Cytogenetic and genome research 112 (1-2) 160 - 5 2006 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The genomic DNA of the grasshopper (Oxya hyla intricata) was subjected to electrophoresis after digestion with HaeIII, and the result showed two bands of highly repetitive DNA, approximately 200 and 400 bp in length. The 200-bp HaeIII-digested fragment was cloned and characterized by sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed the presence of two distinct satellite DNA (stDNA) families: one consisting of a 169-bp repeated element having an A+T content of 60.9% and the other consisting of a 204-bp repeated element having an A+T content of 53.9%. No significant homology between the two stDNA families was observed. FISH showed that the chromosomal locations of these families are different from each other. The 169-bp element was located in the C-band-positive regions of the short arms of most of the chromosomes, whereas the 204-bp element was located in the centromeric regions of three chromosome pairs. These results imply that the origins of these two DNA families are different. The results of zoo-blot hybridization to the genomic DNA from four Oxya species, O. hyla intricata, O. japonica japonica, O. chinensis formosana, and O. yezoensis, suggest that the two stDNA families found in the present study are species-specific for O. hyla intricata.
  • Hiroaki Masuda, Hirotaka Chikuda, Tatsuo Suga, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Makoto Kuro-o
    Mechanisms of ageing and development 12 126 (12) 1274 - 83 0047-6374 2005/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Mice carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the klotho gene (KL(-/-) mice) develop ageing-like symptoms around 4 weeks after birth and suffer from multiple age-related disorders observed in humans, including osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, and pulmonary emphysema. The klotho gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein that may function in signaling pathways that suppress ageing. To investigate the ability of Klotho to regulate the development of ageing-related disorders, we established an inducible Klotho expression system using KL(-/-) mice carrying an exogenous klotho gene fused to the mouse metallothionein-I promoter, in which Klotho expression was dependent on zinc water feeding. We demonstrate that many advanced ageing-like KL(-/-) phenotypes were restored to normal whenever Klotho expression was induced. Conversely, decreasing Klotho expression in these rescued KL(-/-) mice induced several ageing-like KL(-/-) phenotypes. Our data indicate that Klotho may be effective in the treatment of multiple age-related disorders and is essential for maintaining animals free of these disorders.
  • Masaya Yamamoto, Jeremy D Clark, Johanne V Pastor, Prem Gurnani, Animesh Nandi, Hiroshi Kurosu, Masayoshi Miyoshi, Yasushi Ogawa, Diego H Castrillon, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-o
    The Journal of biological chemistry 45 280 (45) 38029 - 34 0021-9258 2005/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    klotho is an aging suppressor gene and extends life span when overexpressed in mice. Klotho protein was recently demonstrated to function as a hormone that inhibits insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Here we show that Klotho protein increases resistance to oxidative stress at the cellular and organismal level in mammals. Klotho protein activates the FoxO forkhead transcription factors that are negatively regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling, thereby inducing expression of manganese superoxide dismutase. This in turn facilitates removal of reactive oxygen species and confers oxidative stress resistance. Thus, Klotho-induced inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 signaling is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress, which potentially contributes to the anti-aging properties of klotho.
  • Hiroshi Kurosu, Masaya Yamamoto, Jeremy D Clark, Johanne V Pastor, Animesh Nandi, Prem Gurnani, Owen P McGuinness, Hirotaka Chikuda, Masayuki Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Iichiro Shimomura, Yoshiharu Takayama, Joachim Herz, C Ronald Kahn, Kevin P Rosenblatt, Makoto Kuro-o
    Science (New York, N.Y.) 5742 309 (5742) 1829 - 33 0036-8075 2005/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A defect in Klotho gene expression in mice accelerates the degeneration of multiple age-sensitive traits. Here, we show that overexpression of Klotho in mice extends life span. Klotho protein functions as a circulating hormone that binds to a cell-surface receptor and represses intracellular signals of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for extending life span. Alleviation of aging-like phenotypes in Klotho-deficient mice was observed by perturbing insulin and IGF1 signaling, suggesting that Klotho-mediated inhibition of insulin and IGF1 signaling contributes to its anti-aging properties. Klotho protein may function as an anti-aging hormone in mammals.
  • Yorito Anamizu, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Atsushi Seichi, Shinji Yamaguchi, Emiko Kawakami, Naotoshi Kanda, Shiro Matsubara, Makoto Kuro-o, Yoichi Nabeshima, Kozo Nakamura, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi
    Acta neuropathologica 5 109 (5) 457 - 66 0001-6322 2005/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene was identified in 1997 as the gene whose severe insufficiency (kl/kl) causes a syndrome resembling human aging, such as osteoporosis, arteriosclerosis, gonadal atrophy, emphysema, and short life span in a mouse strain. Regarding the gait disturbance reported in kl/kl mice, the present study examined the spinal cord of kl/kl mice, and revealed decreases in the number of large anterior horn cells (AHCs), the amount of cytoplasmic RNA, the number of ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and the activity of ribosomal (r) RNA gene transcription without significant loss of the total number of neurons in the ventral gray matter. Increased immunostaining of phosphorylated neurofilament in the AHCs and of glial fibrillary acidic protein in reactive astrocytes in the anterior horn of kl/kl mice were also observed. On the other hand, the posterior horn was quite well preserved. The results suggest that the kl/kl insufficiency causes atrophy and dysfunction of the spinal AHCs through decreased activity of rRNA gene transcription, which may reduce the amount of cytoplasmic RNA and the number of ribosomes and rER. These findings resemble those found in the spinal cord of patients with classic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The results show that klotho gene insufficiency causes dysfunction of the protein synthesizing system in the AHCs, and might indicate the klotho gene is involved in the pathological mechanism of classic ALS. The kl/kl is a new animal model of AHC degeneration, and may provide clues to understanding the etiology of classic ALS.
  • Chikako Ikebe, Masaki Kuro-o, Hiromi Ohtani, Yoshie Kawase, Tomomi Matsui, Sei-ichi Kohno
    Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology 13 (2) 157 - 67 0967-3849 2005 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Using Giemsa staining, C-banding and Ag-NOR staining techniques, we analyzed chromosomes in adult male and female Hynobius quelpaertensis and in embryos of this species in egg sacs collected from eight localities of Cheju Island, South Korea. Chromosome pair 21 was consistently homomorphic in male specimens, while it was heteromorphic in female specimens, suggesting the occurrence of ZZ/ZW sex chromosome constitution in this species. The W chromosome, being much larger than the Z chromosome, was of three morphologically distinct types: WA, WB and WC. Lampbrush chromosomes examined in the oocytes of one female specimen having the WA chromosome showed that the short arm of the WA chromosome and the long arm of the Z chromosome paired closely and hence are genetically homologous. We also tried to analyze the structural relationship among the three types of W chromosomes based on their C-banding and Ag-NOR patterns.
  • A Nakata, A Yoshimura, M Kuro-o, Y Obara
    Cytogenetic and genome research 111 (2) 152 - 8 2005 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The karyological relationship and organization of highly repetitive DNA sequences in Japanese shrew-moles were studied by zoo-blot hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). When the genomic DNA of the eastern race of Urotrichus talpoides was digested with PstI, three fragments of highly repetitive DNA sequences, approximately 0.7, 0.9, and 1.4 kb in length, were observed as distinct bands. The results of FISH in the eastern race of U. talpoides using these three fragments separately as probes showed that the 0.7-kb PstI fragment was distributed in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes, and that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb fragments were predominantly located in the C-heterochromatin region of chromosome 13p. Although the western race of U. talpoides also had three PstI fragments, 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were more ambiguous than those of the eastern race. The PstI- digested genomic DNA in Dymecodonpilirostris produced only a faint 0.9-kb band, and its signal patterns obtained by zoo-blot hybridization were clearly different from those of U. talpoides. The 0.7-kb fragment of U. talpoides hybridized strongly with the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris. In a FISH analysis, the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris hybridized with highly repetitive DNA in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes from both D. pilirostris and U. talpoides. Zoo-blot hybridization and FISH analyses suggest that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were generated specifically in the genome of U. talpoides after the common ancestor differentiated into two extant shrew-mole species. A difference in the length of the centromeric elements between U. talpoides and D. pilirostris might be observed due to certain modifications of the repeating unit.
  • Koji Wakimoto, Hisako Fujimura, Takahiro Iwamoto, Toru Oka, Kinji Kobayashi, Satomi Kita, Sumiyo Kudoh, Makoto Kuro-o, Yo ichi Nabeshima, Munekazu Shigekawa, Yuji Imai, Issei Komuro
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 1 135 (1) 9 - 15 1096-4959 2003/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) plays a key role in maintaining Ca(2+) homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. Disruption of Ncx1 gene in mice results in embryonic lethality between embryonic day 9 and 10, with the mice lacking spontaneous heartbeats. We examined the mechanism of lack of heartbeats in Ncx1-deficient mice. Ultrastructual analysis demonstrated that Ncx1-deficient mice showed severe disorganization of myofibrils, a lack of Z-lines and swelling of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. However, the expressions of cardiac-specific genes including transcription factor genes and contractile protein genes were not changed in Ncx1-deficient mice. Abnormal Ca(2+) handling itself or the lack of heartbeats due to the inactivation of Ncx1 gene may cause the disorganization of myofibrillogenesis. Although NCX1 protein levels were decreased in heterozygous mice, there were no changes in NCX2 and NCX3 protein levels between wild type and heterozygous mice.
  • Ken-ichi Kawano, Naoshi Ogata, Mathias Chiano, Helen Molloy, Patrick Kleyn, Tim D Spector, Motoyuki Uchida, Takayuki Hosoi, Takao Suzuki, Hajime Orimo, Satoshi Inoue, Yoichi Nabeshima, Kozo Nakamura, Makoto Kuro-o, Hiroshi Kawaguchi
    Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 10 17 (10) 1744 - 51 0884-0431 2002/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Because mice deficient in klotho gene expression exhibit multiple aging phenotypes including osteopenia, we explored the possibility that the klotho gene may contribute to age-related bone loss in humans by examining the association between klotho gene polymorphisms and bone density in two genetically distinct racial populations: the white and the Japanese. Screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human klotho gene identified 11 polymorphisms, and three of them were common in both populations. Associations of the common SNPs with bone density were investigated in populations of 1187 white women and of 215 Japanese postmenopausal women. In the white population, one in the promoter region (G-395A, p = 0.001) and one in exon 4 (C1818T, p = 0.010) and their haplotypes (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with bone density in aged postmenopausal women (> or = 65 years), but not in premenopausal or younger postmenopausal women. These associations were also seen in Japanese postmenopausal women. An electrophoretic mobility shift analysis revealed that the G-A substitution in the promoter region affected DNA-protein interaction in cultured human kidney 293 cells. These results indicate that the klotho gene may be involved in the pathophysiology of bone loss with aging in humans.
  • Takatomo Satoh, Midori Hatanaka, Kiyotaka Yamamoto, Masaki Kuro-o, Toshio Sofuni
    Mutation research 504 (1-2) 57 - 65 0027-5107 2002/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Using a human lymphoblastoid cell line WTK-1, we applied multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) technique to analyze mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromatid exchanges, focusing especially on the triradial chromosomes. It was found that the triradial chromosomes were formed with a specific rearrangement, "recipient and donor" relationship. The exchange sites of the recipient chromosomes were on single chromatid breaks and distributed randomly throughout the interstitial, pericentromeric, and terminal regions. In counterpart, donor chromosomes exchanged on isochromatid breaks of their telomeric and/or subtelomeric regions with the single chromatid breaks of recipient chromosomes. More than 80% of the scored triradial chromosomes were formed with such rearrangements, and few acentric chromosome fragments derived from the donor chromosomes could be detected in the metaphases observed. We therefore suggest that biological mechanisms of breakages between the recipient and donor chromosomes are different: the former due to direct DNA-damage by MMC, but the latter due to indirect DNA-damage depending on telomeric specific structure/function.
  • N Ogata, Y Matsumura, M Shiraki, K Kawano, Y Koshizuka, T Hosoi, K Nakamura, M Kuro-O, H Kawaguchi
    Bone 31 (1) 37 - 42 8756-3282 2002/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Based on the fact that the klotho-deficient mouse exhibits multiple aging phenotypes, including osteopenia and subchondral sclerosis of joints, we explored the possibility of whether human klotho gene polymorphism is associated with two major age-related skeletal disorders: osteoporosis and spondylosis. Analysis of the CA repeat sequence downstream of the final exon of the klotho gene identified ten types of alleles in Japanese postmenopausal women (n = 377). We investigated the association of this microsatellite polymorphism with bone density and spondylosis score of the lumbar spine. None of the genotypes was associated with bone density in the overall population (n = 377; 754 alleles) nor in the subpopulation at not more than 10 years after menopause (20 years after menopause (n = 102; 204 alleles, p = 0.024). The type 7 allele was associated with high bone density in women more than 20 years after menopause (p = 0.042). The association study with spondylosis of postmenopausal women (n = 221) revealed that another distinct allele, type 8, was significantly associated with low spondylosis score at L-4/5 (p = 0.019) and L-5/S-1 (p = 0.048) levels in the subpopulation equal to or younger than the average age (
  • Tetsuya Nakamura, Yuichiro Saito, Yoshio Ohyama, Hiroaki Masuda, Hiroyuki Sumino, Makoto Kuro-o, Youichi Nabeshima, Ryozo Nagai, Masahiko Kurabayashi
    Japanese journal of pharmacology 2 89 (2) 149 - 56 0021-5198 2002/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A novel murine model of aging (kl/kl mice) has been developed by in vivo mutagenesis. We analyzed endothelial function in this strain. Ring preparations of the thoracic aorta were obtained from 6- to 9-week old wild-type (+/+) and heterozygous (kl/+) klotho mice. The aortas of kl/+ mice showed an exaggerated contractile response to norepinephrine and attenuated vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and lecithinized superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared to +/+ mice. The response to sodium nitroprusside was unaltered in kl/+ mice. The contraction in response to norepinephrine was augmented by treatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-5) M) to a greater extent in +/+ mice than in kl/+ mice. Treatment with L-NAME abolished the vasodilator responses to both acetylcholine and lecithinized SOD. NO metabolites (NO2- and NO3-) and cGMP concentrations in the urine were significantly reduced in kl/+ mice compared to +/+ mice. However, the urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha was unaltered. There was little immunostaining for NO synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the aorta of kl/+ mice. No immunostaining for NO synthase was noted in the aorta of kl/kl mice. The expression of the klotho gene product may have a role in the regulation of VEGF expression and is tightly linked to endothelial release of NO.
  • M Kuro-o, C Ikebe, Y Izumisawa, Y Fujinuki, K Sasaki, K Saso, K Akaba, S Kohno
    Cytogenetic and genome research 99 (1-4) 194 - 9 2002 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The karyotype of Hynobius tokyoensis (2n = 56) was analyzed using three kinds of banding methods to determine the morphological differentiation of the sex chromosomes of this species. Salamanders and egg sacs were collected from seven localities around Tokyo, Japan. Of 28 chromosome pairs, microchromosome No. 21 was identified as a ZZ/ZW-type sex chromosome. The Z chromosome was acrocentric, whereas the W chromosome was submetacentric, with a heterochromatic, elongated short arm. Interestingly, the W chromosome is of three distinct types, W(A), W(B), and W(C), based on R-banding and Ag-NOR patterns. W(A) was detected in five populations from southern habitats, whereas W(B) and W(C) were detected in one population each from northern habitats. W(A), W(B), and W(C) were all found to carry Ag-NORs on their heterochromatic short arms. Considering the karyotypes of other species belonging to the same genus, we discuss the evolution of the sex chromosomes of H. tokyoensis.
  • T Yamagishi, Y Saito, T Nakamura, S Takeda, H Kanai, H Sumino, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima, M Kurabayashi, R Nagai
    Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 24 (6) 705 - 9 0916-9636 2001/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Targeted disruption of the klotho gene induces multiple phenotypes characteristic of human aging, including arteriosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema and osteoporosis. Moreover, we previously observed that insufficient klotho expression in mice leads to endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we used Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which exhibit hypertension, obesity, severe hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and are thus considered an animal model of atherogenic disease, to test the effects of oral administration of troglitazone (200 mg/kg) on renal klotho mRNA expression and endothelial function. Systolic blood pressure, body weight, plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were all significantly higher in 30-week-old OLETF rats than in controls (LETO; Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka) (p<0.05, n=7). In addition, endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in response to 10(-5) M acetylcholine was significantly attenuated in OLETF rats (p<0.05, n=7), as was renal expression of klotho mRNA. Administration of troglitazone for 10 weeks significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in OLETF rats, while augmenting endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation and renal klotho mRNA expression. These findings suggest that troglitazone protects the vascular endothelium against damage caused by the presence of multiple atherogenic factors.
  • Developmental expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) gene in the mouse embryo
    Wakimoto K, Kuro-o M, Yanaka N, Komuro I, Nabeshima YI, Imai Y
    Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 130 (2) 191 - 198 2001/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • N Manabe, H Kawaguchi, H Chikuda, C Miyaura, M Inada, R Nagai, Y Nabeshima, K Nakamura, A M Sinclair, R H Scheuermann, M Kuro-o
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 167 (5) 2625 - 31 0022-1767 2001/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Osteoclasts differentiate from the hemopoietic monocyte/macrophage cell lineage in bone marrow through cell-cell interactions between osteoclast progenitors and stromal/osteoblastic cells. Here we show another osteoclast differentiation pathway closely connected with B lymphocyte differentiation. Recently the TNF family molecule osteoclast differentiation factor/receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (ODF/RANKL) was identified as a key membrane-associated factor regulating osteoclast differentiation. We demonstrate that B-lymphoid lineage cells are a major source of endogenous ODF/RANKL in bone marrow and support osteoclast differentiation in vitro. In addition, B-lymphoid lineage cells in earlier developmental stages may hold a potential to differentiate into osteoclasts when stimulated with M-CSF and soluble ODF/RANKL in vitro. B-lymphoid lineage cells may participate in osteoclastogenesis in two ways: they 1) express ODF/RANKL to support osteoclast differentiation, and 2) serve themselves as osteoclast progenitors. Consistent with these observations in vitro, a decrease in osteoclasts is associated with a decrease in B-lymphoid cells in klotho mutant mice (KL(-/-)), a mouse model for human aging that exhibits reduced turnover during bone metabolism, rather than a decrease in the differentiation potential of osteoclast progenitors. Taken together, B-lymphoid lineage cells may affect the pathophysiology of bone disorders through regulating osteoclastogenesis.
  • K Wakimoto, M Kuro-o, N Yanaka, I Komuro, Y I Nabeshima, Y Imai
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 130 (2) 191 - 8 1096-4959 2001/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger gene, NCX1, is widely expressed in many tissues, encoding several isoforms through alternative RNA splicing. NCX1 deficient mice are known to be lethal at embryonic day 9-10 (E9-10). However, its expression pattern during embryogenesis is largely unknown. Therefore, to identify and compare the localization and alternatively spliced isoforms of NCX1 mRNA expressed in the developmental stages, we analyzed the mouse embryo. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that NCX1 mRNA was expressed from the earliest stage examined, E7. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that NCX1 mRNA was expressed in the heart alone until E10.5. However, at E14.5 and 16.5, NCX1 mRNA was expressed not only in the heart, but also in neuronal cells. In addition, the expression of NCX1 mRNA in the adult brain was most abundant in the hippocampus. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we also identified the alternatively spliced isoforms expressed during each developmental stage. The restricted expression of the NCX1 gene suggested that NCX1 may play an important role in the developing mouse embryo.
  • M Kuro-o
    Trends in molecular medicine 7 (4) 179 - 81 1471-4914 2001/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of human aging. This, at least in part, derives from a paucity of appropriate animal models of aging. Until recently, the senescence-accelerated mouse was the only mammalian model of aging. However, novel mouse models that exhibit multiple aging phenotypes have been developed in the past few years by disruption of the klotho gene, the telomerase gene and the genes involved in premature aging syndromes. These mouse models are expected to be important tools for aging research.
  • D Fukushi, M Kuro-O, M Shichiri, Y Obara, K Tsuchiya
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 92 (3-4) 254 - 63 0301-0171 2001 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The DNA of Apodemus argenteus was digested with DraI, and the resultant DraI fragment of highly repetitive DNA was isolated and analyzed by DNA filter hybridization, cloning, sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Southern blot hybridization and nucleotide sequencing revealed that most of the DraI fragment consisted of a 230-bp repeating unit and contained no sex-chromosome-specific nucleotide sequences. The DraI fragment included the CENP-B box-like sequence, with a strong homology to the human CENP-B box sequence. FISH revealed that the DraI fragment was specific to all pericentromeric C-band-positive regions, as well as to the C-block of the X chromosome. No hybridization signals were obtained from A. speciosus, A. peninsulae peninsulae, A.p. giliacus, A. agrarius, A. sylvaticus, A. semotus, or Mus musculus when the DraI fragment was used as probe. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-FISH using the CENP-B box-like sequence in the DraI fragments as probe suggested that this nucleotide sequence was also specific to all pericentromeric C-heterochromatic regions of A. argenteus chromosomes. Zoo-blot hybridization using DraI-digested genomic DNA from three species of Apodemus (namely, A. argenteus, A. speciosus, and A. peninsulae) and from Mus musculus strongly suggested that the consensus DraI fragment contained nucleotide sequences that were species-specific for A. argenteus. These results also suggest that A. argenteus is phylogenetically distant from other Apodemus species examined, as well as the possibility that the DraI fragment might be related directly to the delayed quinacrine mustard fluorescence of many pericentromeric C-heterochromatic regions of the chromosomes in A. argenteus.
  • K Wakimoto, K Kobayashi, M Kuro-O, A Yao, T Iwamoto, N Yanaka, S Kita, A Nishida, S Azuma, Y Toyoda, K Omori, H Imahie, T Oka, S Kudoh, O Kohmoto, Y Yazaki, M Shigekawa, Y Imai, Y Nabeshima, I Komuro
    The Journal of biological chemistry 275 (47) 36991 - 8 0021-9258 2000/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Ca(2+), which enters cardiac myocytes through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels during excitation, is extruded from myocytes primarily by the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) during relaxation. The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in myocytes by digitalis treatment and after ischemia/reperfusion is also thought to result from the reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange mechanism. However, the precise roles of the NCX1 are still unclear because of the lack of its specific inhibitors. We generated Ncx1-deficient mice by gene targeting to determine the in vivo function of the exchanger. Homozygous Ncx1-deficient mice died between embryonic days 9 and 10. Their hearts did not beat, and cardiac myocytes showed apoptosis. No forward mode or reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange activity was detected in null mutant hearts. The Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) exchange activity as well as protein content of NCX1 were decreased by approximately 50% in the heart, kidney, aorta, and smooth muscle cells of the heterozygous mice, and tension development of the aortic ring in Na(+)-free solution was markedly impaired in heterozygous mice. These findings suggest that NCX1 is required for heartbeats and survival of cardiac myocytes in embryos and plays critical roles in Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) handling in the heart and aorta.
  • Y Takahashi, M Kuro-O, F Ishikawa
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (23) 12407 - 8 0027-8424 2000/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Aging (senescence) has long been a difficult issue to be experimentally analyzed because of stochastic processes, which contrast with the programmed events during early development. However, we have recently started to learn the molecular mechanisms that control aging. Studies of the mutant mouse, klotho, showing premature aging, raise a possibility that mammals have an "anti-aging hormone." A decrease of cell proliferation ability caused by the telomeres is also tightly linked to senescence. Frontier experimental studies of aging at the molecular level are leading to fascinating hypotheses that aging is the price we had to pay for the evolution of the sexual reproduction system that produces a variety of genetic information and complex body structures.
  • Y Saito, T Nakamura, Y Ohyama, T Suzuki, A Iida, T Shiraki-Iida, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima, M Kurabayashi, R Nagai
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 276 (2) 767 - 72 0006-291X 2000/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The klotho gene, originally identified by insertional mutagenesis in mice, suppresses multiple aging phenotypes (e.g., arteriosclerosis, pulmonary emphysema, osteoporosis, infertility, and short life span). We have previously shown that mice heterozygous for a defect in the klotho gene upon parabiosis with wild-type mice show improved endothelial function, suggesting that the klotho gene product protects against endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat which demonstrates multiple atherogenic risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, severe hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia) and is thus considered an experimental animal model of atherosclerotic disease, we show that adenovirus-mediated klotho gene delivery can (1) ameliorate vascular endothelial dysfunction, (2) increase nitric oxide production, (3) reduce elevated blood pressure, and (4) prevent medial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis. Based on these findings, klotho gene delivery improves endothelial dysfunction through a pathway involving nitric oxide, and is involved in modulating vascular function (e.g., hypertension and vascular remodeling). Our findings establish the basis for the therapeutic potential of klotho gene delivery in atherosclerotic disease.
  • T Utsugi, T Ohno, Y Ohyama, T Uchiyama, Y Saito, Y Matsumura, H Aizawa, H Itoh, M Kurabayashi, S Kawazu, S Tomono, Y Oka, T Suga, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima, R Nagai
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 49 (9) 1118 - 23 0026-0495 2000/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We have recently identified a novel gene, klotho (kl), which may suppress several aging phenotypes. A defect of kl gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome resembling human aging, such as arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis, and pulmonary emphysema. To determine whether mouse homozygotes for the kl mutation (kl/kl) show abnormal glucose metabolism, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 6 to 8 weeks of age. Blood glucose levels during the OGTT were significantly lower in kl/kl mice versus wild-type mice. The insulin content of the pancreas was significantly lower in kl/kl mice compared with wild-type mice. Decreased insulin production was also supported by Northern blot analysis showing lower levels of insulin mRNA in kl/kl mice. To examine how lower blood glucose levels may exist in kl/kl mice despite decreased insulin production, insulin tolerance tests (ITTs) were performed. The glucose decline following insulin injection was more severe in kl/kl mice versus wild-type mice, suggesting that insulin sensitivity was higher in kl/kl mice versus wild-type mice. In kl/kl mice, an augmented expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle was demonstrated by both Northern blot analysis and Western blot analysis. Thus, we conclude that insulin production is decreased and insulin sensitivity is increased in the klotho mouse, a novel animal model for human aging.
  • T Shiraki-Iida, A Iida, Y Nabeshima, H Anazawa, S Nishikawa, M Noda, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima
    JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE 2 (4) 233 - 242 1099-498X 2000/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Background We have established a novel mouse mutant, klotho (kl), by insertional mutation of a transgene and identified the structural gene. The mouse homozygous for the mutation exhibits multiple pathological conditions resembling age-related disorders in humans and can be regarded as a model of human premature aging syndromes. However, the pathophysiological role of Klotho protein has not been clarified. Methods A replication-deficient adenoviral vector expressing the membrane form of the mouse klotho gene was constructed and we examined Klotho expression in vitro. The recombinant adenoviral vector was then administered intravenously into klotho mice at 4-5 weeks of age and its therapeutic potential was examined. Results Expression of Klotho protein was observed in the adenoviral vector-infected CHO cells. The klotho mice infused with the recombinant adenovirus showed a significant extension of life span and gain in body weight at 1 week after treatment. Macroscopic and histological analyses demonstrated the improvement of multiple pathological findings such as restoration from atrophy and cell formation and differentiation in the gonadal cells, immune tissues and subcutaneous fat. Conclusion We showed that local expression of the klotho gene retards or partially improves pathological abnormalities in several organs of klotho mice after onset of the phenotypes. Therefore, the recombinant adenovirus vector will provide an important tool for investigating the molecular mechanism of the Klotho protein and give clues to understanding the individual disease mechanisms. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • S Okada, T Yoshida, Z Hong, G Ishii, M Hatano, M Kuro-O, Y Nabeshima, Y Nabeshima, T Tokuhisa
    International immunology 12 (6) 861 - 71 0953-8178 2000/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Inactivation of the klotho gene in mice results in multiple disorders that resemble human aging after 3 weeks of age. Because hematopoiesis, especially B lymphopoiesis, is affected in humans and mice by aging, we analyzed the hematopoietic state in homozygous klotho (kl/kl) mice. The kl/kl mice showed thymic atrophy and a reduced number of splenocytes. These mice had almost the normal number of myeloid cells, erythroid cells, IL-3-responsive myeloid precursors and colony forming units in spleen (CFU-S) in bone marrow (BM), but had a substantially decreased number of B cells in BM and peripheral blood as compared with wild-type mice. IL-7-responsive B cell precursors and all of the maturation stages of B cells in BM were also reduced. However, the function of hematopoietic stem cells including their capacity of B lymphopoiesis in vivo and in vitro was normal. Early B cell development was also normal in neonates and young kl/kl mice until 2 weeks old without aging phenotypes. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the level of IL-7 gene expression was significantly reduced in freshly isolated kl/kl BM cells. However, injection of IL-7 in kl/kl mice could not rescue the B lymphopenia. These findings indicate that Klotho protein may regulate B lymphopoiesis via its influence on the hematopoietic microenvironment.
  • J Kiraku, T Sugiyama, T Ashida, N Takahashi, J Fujii, M Kuro-o, R Nagai
    Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 35 (3) 511 - 3 0160-2446 2000/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We produced transgenic mice overexpressing Na+/ H+ exchanger as a model of salt-sensitive hypertension and reported that dietary salt loading elevates blood pressure in these transgenic mice. We speculate that this blood pressure elevation may be attributed to the elevation of intraarterial smooth muscle Ca2+ concentration through Na+/Ca2+ exchange. To test this hypothesis, we measured the isometric tension of aortic rings and intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) of cultured smooth muscle cells. In the transgenic mice, the aortic ring contraction induced by 5 mM caffeine (percentage of 60 mM K-induced contraction) was significantly greater than control mice (60.1 +/- 5.5% vs. 44.8 +/- 3.1%). The mean [Ca2+]i in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of transgenic mice (123.1 +/- 19.7 nM) was higher than those in VSMCs of control mice (66.6 +/- 7.2 nM). These observations suggest that dietary salt loading increases the concentration of calcium in arterial smooth muscle cells in this transgenic mice. These findings are helpful in tracing the causes of salt-sensitive hypertension.
  • Y Kato, E Arakawa, S Kinoshita, A Shirai, A Furuya, K Yamano, K Nakamura, A Iida, H Anazawa, N Koh, A Iwano, A Imura, T Fujimori, M Kuro-o, N Hanai, K Takeshige, Y Nabeshima
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 267 (2) 597 - 602 0006-291X 2000/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A novel gene, klotho (kl), which is involved in the development of a syndrome resembling human aging in mice, was recently identified. The kl gene encodes a single-pass membrane protein whose extracellular domain carries homology to beta-glucosidases. There also exists a splice variant of kl mRNA which encodes a putative secreted protein in both human and mouse. In this study, to characterize the physiological roles of Klotho protein, we established three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the recombinant human Klotho protein. The mAbs are named KM2076 (rat IgG(2)a), KM2119 (rat IgG(2)b), and KM2365 (mouse IgG(1)). In Western blots, KM2076 and KM2119 specifically recognized a 130 kDa Klotho protein in the mouse and human kidney membrane fractions. To detect the human Klotho protein, the sandwich-type ELISA system with KM2076 and KM2365 was established. Using the ELISA system, we detected the human Klotho protein as low as 20 ng/ml in the supernatant of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells), introduced the human klotho gene. KM2076 and KM2119 specifically gave a positive staining by immunohistochemical staining in paraffin or frozen sections of the kidneys from wild-type mice but not in those from kl mice. Strong staining was observed especially in cortical renal tubules of the mouse kidney, where expression of klotho transcripts overlaps. KM2076 also showed a similar reaction pattern in the paraffin sections of rat and human kidneys. The mAbs established in this paper will serve as useful analytical, pathological, and diagnostic tools to disclose the role of Klotho protein in the suppression of a syndrome resembling human aging.
  • Chikako Ikebe, Masaki Kuro-o, Guanfu Wu, Xiaomao Zeng, Sei-Ichi Kohno
    Chromosome Research 8 (3) 265 - 272 0967-3849 2000 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Initial analysis of Pseudohynobius flavomaculatus chromosomes determined the chromosome number of this species to be 2n = 52. A re-examination of Ranodon Shihi chromosomes detected 2n = 66 chromosomes, in contrast with a previous finding of 2n = 64. The C-banding patterns of these two species and that of Batrachuperus pinchonii were compared with each other. Regions of homoeology in the C-banding pattern among these three species represented 33.51-48.30% of the total length of their chromosomes. We also detected two types of chromosome rearrangement in hynobiid species based on the results of the present and previous cytogenetic studies.
  • Koji Wakimoto, Makoto Kuro-O, Noriyuki Yanaka, Kenji Omori, Issei Komuro, Yuji Imai, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima
    Mitochondrial DNA 11 (1-2) 75 - 81 1940-1736 2000 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene NCXl is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues, and encodes several isoforms through alternative RNA splicing. In this report, we describe the gene structure that gives rise to the multiple isoforms, and the tissue-specific expression of these isoforms in mice. The mouse NCXl gene contains a cluster of six exons (A, B, C, D, E, and F) which encode a variable region in the large intracellular loop of the protein, as previously reported in rabbits and humans. Using reverse tran-scription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), expression of the isoforms was examined in several tissues. We also identified a novel splice variant, which originate from exons A, C, D, and F. These findings provide new insights into the significance of the large repertoire of NCXl isoforms. © 2000 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
  • T Suga, M Kurabayashi, Y Sando, Y Ohyama, T Maeno, Y Maeno, H Aizawa, Y Matsumura, T Kuwaki, M Kuro-O, Y i Nabeshima, R Nagai
    American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 22 (1) 26 - 33 1044-1549 2000/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Homozygous mutant klotho (KL(-/-)) mice exhibit multiple phenotypes resembling human aging. In the present study, we focused on examining the pathology of the lungs of klotho mice and found that it closely resembled pulmonary emphysema in humans both histologically and functionally. Histology of the lung of KL(-/-) mice was indistinguishable from those of wild-type littermates up to 2 wk of age. The first histologic changes appeared at 4 wk of age, showing enlargement of the air spaces accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls, and progressed gradually with age. In addition to these changes, we observed calcium deposits in type I collagen fibers in alveolar septa and degeneration of type II pneumocytes in 8- to 10-wk-old KL(-/-) mice. Pulmonary function tests revealed prolonged expiration time in KL(-/-) mice, which is comparable with the pathophysiology of pulmonary emphysema. The expression level of messenger RNA for type IV collagen, surfactant protein-A and mitochondrial beta-adenosine triphosphatase was significantly increased in KL(-/-) mice, which may represent a compensatory response to alveolar destruction. Additionally, the heterozygous mutant klotho mice also developed pulmonary emphysema late in life, around 120 wk of age. These findings indicate that klotho gene expression is essential to maintaining pulmonary integrity during postnatal life. The klotho mutant mouse is a useful laboratory animal model for examining the relationship between aging and pulmonary emphysema.
  • K Wakimoto, M Kuro-O, N Yanaka, K Omori, I Komuro, Y Imai, Y Nabeshima
    DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping 11 (1-2) 75 - 81 1042-5179 2000 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene NCX1 is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues, and encodes several isoforms through alternative RNA splicing. In this report, we describe the gene structure that gives rise to the multiple isoforms, and the tissue-specific expression of these isoforms in mice. The mouse NCX1 gene contains a cluster of six exons (A, B, C, D, E, and F) which encode a variable region in the large intracellular loop of the protein, as previously reported in rabbits and humans. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), expression of the isoforms was examined in several tissues. We also identified a novel splice variant, which originate from exons A, C, D, and F. These findings provide new insights into the significance of the large repertoire of NCX1 isoforms.
  • H Kawaguchi, N Manabe, C Miyaura, H Chikuda, K Nakamura, M Kuro-o
    The Journal of clinical investigation 104 (3) 229 - 37 0021-9738 1999/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We recently identified a new gene, klotho, which is involved in the suppression of multiple aging phenotypes. The mouse homozygous for a disruption of the klotho locus (kl/kl) exhibited multiple pathological conditions resembling human aging. Histomorphometric analysis revealed low-turnover osteopenia in kl/kl mice. The decrease in bone formation exceeded that of bone resorption, resulting in a net bone loss. The number of osteoblast progenitors determined by ex vivo bone marrow cultures was reduced in kl/kl mice. In addition, cultured osteoblastic cells derived from kl/kl mice showed lower alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix nodule formation than those from wild-type mice. Osteoclastogenesis in the coculture of marrow cells and osteoblastic cells was decreased only when marrow cells originated from kl/kl mice independently of the origin of osteoblastic cells. We also found that the expression of osteoprotegerin, an osteoclastogenesis inhibitor, was significantly upregulated in kl/kl mice. We conclude that a defect in the klotho gene expression causes the independent impairment of both osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, leading to low-turnover osteopenia. Because this state represents a characteristic feature of senile osteoporosis in humans, kl/kl mice can be regarded as a useful model for investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms of age-related bone loss.
  • N Watanabe, M Kurabayashi, Y Shimomura, K Kawai-Kowase, Y Hoshino, I Manabe, M Watanabe, M Aikawa, M Kuro-o, T Suzuki, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Circulation research 85 (2) 182 - 91 0009-7330 1999/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We have recently characterized the promoter region of the rabbit embryonic smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMemb/NMHC-B) gene and identified the 15-bp sequence, designated SE1, located at -105 from the transcriptional start site as an important regulatory element for its transcriptional activity in a smooth muscle cell (SMC) line. In this study, we attempted to isolate cDNA clones encoding for the transcription factors that control the expression of the SMemb gene through binding to this cis-regulatory element. We screened a lambdagt11 cDNA library prepared from C2/2 cells, a rabbit-derived SMC line, by using a radiolabeled concatenated oligonucleotide containing SE1 as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the cDNA clones corresponds to the rabbit homologue of basic transcriptional element binding protein-2 (BTEB2), which has previously been identified as one of the Krüppel-like transcription factor. Gel mobility shift assays and antibody supershift analyses with nuclear extracts from C2/2 cells indicate that BTEB2 is a major component of nuclear factor:SE1 complexes. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase-BTEB2 fusion protein binds to the SE1 in a sequence-specific manner. In support of the functionality of BTEB2 binding, basal promoter activity and BTEB2-induced transcriptional activation were markedly attenuated by the disruption of the SE1. In adult rabbit tissues, BTEB2 mRNA was most highly expressed in intestine, urinary bladder, and uterus. BTEB2 mRNA levels were downregulated in rabbit aorta during normal development. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis indicated a marked induction of BTEB2 protein in the neointimal SMC after balloon injury in rat aorta. These results suggest that BTEB2 mediates the transcriptional regulation of the SMemb/NMHC-B gene and possibly plays a role in regulating gene expression during phenotypic modulation of vascular SMC.
  • J Kiraku, T Nakamura, T Sugiyama, N Takahashi, M Kuro-o, J Fujii, R Nagai
    Japanese journal of pharmacology 80 (2) 181 - 3 0021-5198 1999/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in amelioration of blood pressure elevation during dietary salt loading in transgenic mice overexpressing sodium proton exchanger. Systolic blood pressure rose after starting salt loading only in the high-salt group of transgenic mice. However, this elevation of blood pressure was not continued. Urinary excretion of inorganic nitrite and nitrate in the high-salt group of transgenic mice was significantly higher than in the high-salt group of control mice. These results suggest that increased NO synthesis in response to salt loading is one of the anti-hypertensive mechanisms in transgenic mice overexpressing sodium proton exchanger.
  • Y Ohyama, M Kurabayashi, H Masuda, T Nakamura, Y Aihara, T Kaname, T Suga, M Arai, H Aizawa, Y Matsumura, M Kuro-o, Y i Nabeshima, R Nagail
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 251 (3) 920 - 5 0006-291X 1998/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We have recently identified a novel gene, termed klotho, that is involved in the suppression of several aging phenotypes. The gene encodes a membrane protein that shares sequence similarity with the beta-glucosidases of bacteria and plants. In this study, we isolated rat klotho cDNA and examined its tissue distribution in rats. The deduced amino acid sequence of rat Klotho protein was 1014 amino acids in length and 94 and 85% homologous to those of mouse and human Klotho proteins, respectively. Northern blot analysis using the rat klotho cDNA probe identified a single transcript of 5.2 kb in size expressed predominantly in the kidney, while RT-PCR detected low levels of expression also in the brain, lung, intestine, and ovaries. During development, klotho expression in the kidney was markedly augmented after birth. Chromosomal localization of rat klotho was mapped to 12q12. Northern blot analysis showed that expression of klotho was markedly decreased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo, suggesting that expression of klotho is affected by acute inflammatory stress. The present study leads to a better understanding of the physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of Klotho.
  • H Aizawa, Y Saito, T Nakamura, M Inoue, T Imanari, Y Ohyama, Y Matsumura, H Masuda, S Oba, N Mise, K Kimura, A Hasegawa, M Kurabayashi, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima, R Nagai
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 249 (3) 865 - 71 0006-291X 1998/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We recently reported the isolation of the klotho gene, which in predominantly expressed in the kidney and involved in human aging phenotypes. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that the Klotho protein or its metabolites may possibly function as humoral factor(s) and protect against endothelial dysfunction because acetylcholine-mediated NO production in arteries was impaired in heterozygous klotho deficient mice (kl/+). However, the pathophysiological significance of the Klotho protein has not been clarified yet. In the present study, we examined expression of the klotho gene in the kidney of the following rat models for human diseases: (1) spontaneously hypertensive rat, (2) deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rat, (3) 5/6 nephrectomized rat, (4) non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rat (the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat), and (5) rat with acute myocardial infarction. The expression levels of klotho mRNA in the kidney in these models were significantly lower than controls except for MI rats. This is the first report showing the expression of the klotho gene in the kidney is regulated under sustained circulatory stress such as long-term hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic renal failure.
  • Y Saito, T Yamagishi, T Nakamura, Y Ohyama, H Aizawa, T Suga, Y Matsumura, H Masuda, M Kurabayashi, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima, R Nagai
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 248 (2) 324 - 9 0006-291X 1998/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Arteriosclerosis caused by aging is recognized to be a crucial risk factor of cardiovascular disease. We recently established klotho mouse which causes age-related disorders including arteriosclerosis. However, no information on endothelial function of klotho mouse or the physiological role of klotho protein as a circulating factor is available. In this report, we demonstrate that 50% effective dose of aortic relaxation in response to acetylcholine in heterozygous klotho mice is significantly greater (4 x 10(-5) M) than in wild-type mice (8 x 10(-6) M, n = 7, p < 0.05) and that the vasodilator response of arterioles to acetylcholine is significantly attenuated in heterozygous (20% effective dose; 2 x 10(-6) M) and homozygous klotho mice (>1 x 10(-5) M) as compared with wild-type mice (1 x 10(-7) M, n = 7, p < 0.05). Nitric oxide metabolites (NO-2 and NO-3) in urine are significantly lower in heterozygous klotho mice (142 +/- 16 nmol/day) than wild-type mice (241 +/- 28 nmol/day, n = 13, p < 0.05). Parabiosis between wild-type and heterozygous klotho mice results in restoration of endothelial function in heterozygous klotho mice. We conclude that the klotho protein protects the cardiovascular system through endothelium-derived NO production by humoral pathways.
  • A Okuda, A Fukushima, M Nishimoto, A Orimo, T Yamagishi, Y Nabeshima, M Kuro-o, Y i Nabeshima, K Boon, M Keaveney, H G Stunnenberg, M Muramatsu
    The EMBO journal 17 (7) 2019 - 32 0261-4189 1998/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We have obtained a novel transcriptional cofactor, termed undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1), from F9 embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells. This protein is expressed in EC and embryonic stem cells, as well as in germ line tissues, but could not be detected in any of the other adult mouse tissues tested. Furthermore, when EC cells are induced to differentiate, UTF1 expression is rapidly extinguished. In normal mouse embryos, UTF1 mRNA is present in the inner cell mass, the primitive ectoderm and the extra-embryonic tissues. During the primitive streak stage, the induction of mesodermal cells is accompanied by the down-regulation of UTF1 in the primitive ectoderm. However, its expression is maintained for up to 13.5 days post-coitum in the extra-embryonic tissue. Functionally, UTF1 boosts the level of transcription of the adenovirus E2A promoter. However, unlike the pluripotent cell-specific E1A-like activity, which requires the E2F sites of the E2A promoter for increased transcriptional activation, UTF1-mediated activation is dependent on the upstream ATF site of this promoter. This result indicates that UTF1 is not a major component of the E1A-like activity present in pluripotent embryonic cells. Further analyses revealed that UTF1 interacts not only with the activation domain of ATF-2, but also with the TFIID complex in vivo. Thus, UTF1 displays many of the hallmark characteristics expected for a tissue-specific transcriptional coactivator that works in early embryogenesis.
  • T Shiraki-Iida, H Aizawa, Y Matsumura, S Sekine, A Iida, H Anazawa, R Nagai, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima
    FEBS letters 424 (1-2) 6 - 10 0014-5793 1998/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We previously established a novel mouse model for human aging and identified the genetic foundation responsible for it. A defect in expression of a novel gene, termed klotho (kl), leads to a syndrome resembling human aging in mice. The kl gene encodes a single-pass membrane protein whose extracellular domain carries homology to beta-glucosidases. In this report, we present the entire mouse kl gene organization. The mouse kl gene spans about 50 kilobases and consists of five exons. The promoter region lacks a TATA-box and contains four potential binding sites for SP1. We further show that two kl gene transcripts encoding membrane or secreted protein are generated through alternative transcriptional termination. These findings provide fundamental information for further study of the kl gene which may regulate aging in vivo.
  • M Kuro-o, C Ikebe, H Tamamoto, G Wu, X Zeng, S Kohno
    Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 54 (2) 152 - 7 1420-682X 1998/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The chromosome number of a Chinese salamander, Batrachuperus pinchonii, was re-examined Adults and embryonic specimens had a diploid number of 66, with 33 bivalents during meiosis, in contrast to previous reported results. Furthermore, when C-banding analysis was performed with embryos, chromosomes with banding patterns homoeologous to those of Salamandrella keyserlingii and Hynobius species were found. It appears, therefore, that Batrachuperus, Salamandrella and Hynobius might be derived from a common ancestral species in eastern Asia.
  • Y Matsumura, H Aizawa, T Shiraki-Iida, R Nagai, M Kuro-o, Y Nabeshima
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 242 (3) 626 - 30 0006-291X 1998/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Inactivation of the klotho (kl) gene in mice results in multiple disorders that resemble human aging. The mouse kl gene encodes a novel single-pass membrane protein with homology to beta-glucosidases. In this study, we have isolated a human homologue of the kl gene and determined its gene structure. The human kl gene is composed of 5 exons and ranges over 50 kb on chromosome 13q12. We have further identified two transcripts that encode a membrane or secreted protein. These transcripts arise from a single kl gene through alternative RNA splicing. Expression of the putative secreted form predominates over that of the membrane form. The present study provides fundamental information necessary for further analyses of the human kl gene and its functions.
  • M Kuro-o, Y Matsumura, H Aizawa, H Kawaguchi, T Suga, T Utsugi, Y Ohyama, M Kurabayashi, T Kaname, E Kume, H Iwasaki, A Iida, T Shiraki-Iida, S Nishikawa, R Nagai, Y I Nabeshima
    Nature 390 (6655) 45 - 51 0028-0836 1997/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A new gene, termed klotho, has been identified that is involved in the suppression of several ageing phenotypes. A defect in klotho gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome that resembles human ageing, including a short lifespan, infertility, arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis and emphysema. The gene encodes a membrane protein that shares sequence similarity with the beta-glucosidase enzymes. The klotho gene product may function as part of a signalling pathway that regulates ageing in vivo and morbidity in age-related diseases.
  • I Manabe, M Kurabayashi, Y Shimomura, M Kuro-o, N Watanabe, M Watanabe, M Aikawa, T Suzuki, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 239 (2) 598 - 605 0006-291X 1997/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To examine the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of the SMemb/NMHC-B gene, a nonmuscle myosin heavy chain isoform predominantly expressed in fetal aorta, we have isolated and characterized the 5'-flanking region of the rabbit SMemb/NMHC-B gene. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that 105 base pairs of 5'-flanking sequence was necessary to direct high level transcription in C2/2 cells, vascular smooth muscle cells derived from rabbit aorta. An essential cis-regulatory element was localized between -100 and -91 base pairs from the transcription start site based on the results that replacement mutagenesis within this region significantly reduced promoter activity. Sequence of this region is completely conserved between mouse and rabbit and fits no known DNA binding consensus. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that a specific DNA-protein complex was formed at this site with nuclear extracts from C2/2 cells, which can be competed by H-2Kb CCAAT box but not by Hsp70 CCAAT box or other CCAAT-containing sequences. We conclude that expression of the SMemb/NMHC-B gene is regulated through an interaction between a sequence element located at -100 and a distinct member of CCAAT-binding proteins.
  • T Takeuchi, M Kuro-o, H Miyazawa, Y Ohtsuki, H Yamamoto
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 159 (2) 726 - 33 0022-1767 1997/07 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We previously reported a novel thymic stromal cell Ag, HS9, as a potent molecule participating in intrathymic T cell development. HS9 Ag is expressed on thymic stromal cells especially in the cortex but not on thymocytes. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a novel cDNA, N14, encoding HS9 Ag. Sequencing analysis of N14 cDNA has revealed it to be a novel one without any significant homology to previously reported functional molecules. COS7 cells transfected with expression vectors harboring N14 cDNA became reactive with HS9-specific mAb. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that several tissues that are positive for HS9 mAb expressed N14 mRNA. To examine the role of this molecule in T cell development, transgenic mice were generated. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study showed that the transgene was significantly overexpressed on both cortical and medullar thymic stromal cells but not on thymocytes. Flow cytometric analyses showed that the percentages of mature CD4- CD8+ or CD4+ CD8- thymocytes in transgenic mice were approximately twice and triple, respectively, those in control littermates. Moreover, substantial CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes appeared to have high levels of TCR compared with peripheral T cells. Histologic examination revealed that transgenic mice had thin cortex and relatively developed medulla. These data indicate the critical role of the N14 gene in T cell development.
  • M Watanabe, Y Sakomura, M Kurabayashi, I Manabe, M Aikawa, M Kuro-o, T Suzuki, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Circulation research 78 (6) 978 - 89 0009-7330 1996/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We have previously shown that smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms (SMs), including SM1, SM2, and SMemb, are differentially expressed during vascular development, and in vascular lesions, such as atherosclerosis. The SM1/2 gene is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells and generates SM1 and SM2 mRNAs by alternative splicing. Whereas SM1 is constitutively expressed from early development, SM2 appears only after birth. In this study, we have isolated and characterized the 5'-flanking region of the mouse SM1/2 gene. Transient transfection assays using a series of promoter-luciferase chimeric constructs demonstrated that tandem elements of the CCTCCC sequence, located at -89 and -61 bp relative to the transcription start site, were essential for transcriptional activity of the SM1/2 gene in primary cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells and smooth muscle cell lines derived from the rabbit aorta but not in non-smooth muscle cells. Gel mobility shift assays indicated that CCTCCC was a binding site for nuclear proteins prepared from smooth muscle cells. Double-stranded oligonucleotides containing either the CACC box or the Sp1 consensus sequence efficiently competed with the CCTCCC elements for binding the nuclear extracts. Site-specific mutations of CCTCCC elements resulted in a significant reduction of the promoter activity. Moreover, CCTCCC elements are evolutionary conserved between mouse and rabbit. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate an important role for the interaction of the CCTCCC sequence with Sp1 or related factors in activating transcription from the SM1/2 gene promoter.
  • M Kuro-o
    Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 54 (3) 607 - 11 0047-1852 1996/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent investigations have revealed that an enhancement of Na+/H+ exchange activity is a frequently observed ion transport abnormality in hypertensive patients. To test the hypothesis that increased Na+/H+ exchange causes hypertension, we produced transgenic mice overexpressing Na+/H+ exchanger and analyzed their Na+ metabolism and blood pressure. Urinary excretion of water and Na+ was significantly decreased in transgenic mice and systolic blood pressure was elevated after salt loading. The impaired Na+ excretion suggested that the Na+/H+ exchanger overexpressed in the renal tubules increased Na+ reabsorption, which caused a blood pressure elevation by Na+ retention after excessive salt intake. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of Na+/H+ exchanger can be a genetic factor for salt-sensitive hypertension.
  • T Suzuki, M AIkawa, M Kuroo, M Watanabe, K Kimura, K Yazaki, R Nagai
    CARDIOLOGY 87 (1) 23 - 27 0008-6312 1996/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    A smooth muscle layer exists in the parietal endocardium. Notwithstanding previous pioneer work, little has been known on the phenotypes of these smooth muscles. In humans as in animals, smooth muscles show two distinct phenotypes, the 'synthetic' and 'contractile' states, which can be differentiated on the basis of the expression of two types of myosin heavy chain isoforms, SM1 and SM2. In this study, using SM1- and SM2-specific monoclonal antibodies, we performed immunohistochemical examinations to determine the phenotype of the endocardial smooth muscles. We report here that the endocardial smooth muscles have the contractile phenotype.
  • E Okamoto, T Suzuki, M Aikawa, K Imataka, J Fujii, M Kuro-o, K Nakahara, A Hasegawa, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 74 (1) 120 - 8 0023-6837 1996/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Vascular smooth muscles contain at least three types of developmentally regulated myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms; SM1, SM2, and SMemb. By investigating the expression of the three MHC isoforms, we previously demonstrated in rabbits that smooth muscles proliferating in the neointima of arterio- and atherosclerotic lesions regain an "embryonic" phenotype. In the present study, we examined if neointimal cells are morphologically similar to embryonal smooth muscles and if dedifferentiation of neointimal smooth muscles is a reversible process. Vascular injury was produced in rabbits either by endothelial cell denudation of the aorta or by poststenotic dilation of the carotid artery. We have demonstrated in this study that the proliferating neointimal cells expressed SM1 and SMemb, but not SM2, indicating smooth muscles of an "embryonic" phenotype. The dedifferentiation of neointimal smooth muscles was found to be reversible; at 4 to 8 weeks after injury, a majority of the cells reexpressed both SM1 and SM2, but not SMemb. By electron microscopy, we have revealed smooth-muscle phenotypes determined by MHC isoforms to correspond to the morphologic phenotypes as an increase in membranous organelles, and a decrease in myofilaments was associated with the reexpression of SMemb. Interestingly, we also found that in the medial wall at 4 to 8 weeks after ballooning injury, a number of SM1-negative cells proliferated rapidly, replacing normal smooth muscles. These cells were negative against SM1 and SM2 but positive for SMemb. These SM1-negative cells contained abundant membranous organelles and few myofilaments. These cells did not express SM1 or SM2 even after 8 weeks postinjury. We conclude from these results that the proliferating synthetic-type smooth muscles after vascular injury are composed of SM1-positive cells that are morphologically similar to embryonal smooth muscle and that maintain ability to redifferentiate, and SM1-negative cells that contain few myofilaments and remain dedifferentiated.
  • K Kimura, R Nagai, T Sakai, M Aikawa, M Kuro-o, N Kobayashi, I Shirato, T Inagami, M Oshi, N Suzuki
    Kidney international 48 (2) 372 - 82 0085-2538 1995/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The contractility and distensibility of renal arterioles are important in the regulation of glomerular filtration. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of contractile proteins in these arterioles. Recently it was demonstrated that vascular smooth muscles contain two types of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, SM1 and SM2, which are unique molecular markers of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. SM1 is constitutively expressed in all types of smooth muscles, whereas SM2 exists only in mature smooth muscles. We characterized the expression of MHC isoforms as well as the ultrastructural myofilament assembly of renal arteriolar smooth muscles in human, rat and rabbit by immunohistochemical techniques. SM1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin were localized in both the preglomerular vessels (including the afferent arterioles) and efferent arterioles, whereas SM2 was present only in the preglomerular vessels. Renin-producing cells in the afferent arterioles (juxtaglomerular granular cells, JG cells) were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin but negative for SM2. When renin synthesis was stimulated, the more proximal afferent arteriolar smooth muscles turned renin-positive and SM2 disappeared. Glomerular mesangial cells did not show immunoreactivities for SM1, SM2 or alpha-smooth muscle actin. The difference in MHC isoform expression in these arterioles was also reflected by ultrastructures; the afferent arteriolar smooth muscles contained abundant myofilaments including thick filaments, whereas the efferent arteriolar smooth muscles had a few myofilaments composed only of thin microfilaments. The JG cells displayed a myofilament assembly similar to that in the efferent arteriolar smooth muscles. We conclude from these observations that smooth muscles in pre-and postglomerular arterioles, the glomerular mesangial cells and JG cells differ in phenotypes, suggesting that they may have different contractile properties which may be critically involved in the regulation of glomerular filtration.
  • R NAGAI, N AIKAWA, M KUROO, Y YAZAKI
    INTERNAL MEDICINE 34 (4) 279 - 281 0918-2918 1995/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • R Nagi, N Aikawa, M Kuro-o, Y Yazaki
    Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) 34 (4) 279 - 81 0918-2918 1995/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • R Nagai, M Kuro-o, M Aikawa, M Watanabe, T Suzuki, Y Yazaki
    Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology 43 (4) 337 - 41 0047-1860 1995/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Smooth muscle is an important component of the vessel wall. Smooth muscle cell undergoes phenotypic modulation during development of vascular lesions, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). In order to understand the mechanism of vascular remodeling, it is important to identify the smooth muscle cell in the vascular lesion and identify its phenotype by using molecular markers specific to the smooth muscle cell. Three types of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (SM1, SM2 and SMemb) expressed in smooth muscles are suitable for this purpose. In this study we first demonstrated that the expression of smooth muscle specific MHCs, such as SM1 and SM2, is reduced in human coronary arteries after the fifth decade. On the other hand, rapidly proliferating smooth muscles in the restenotic lesion express abundant SMemb but less amount of SM2. These observations indicate that deranged vascular smooth muscle differentiation is involved the development of vascular lesion. We furthermore demonstrated that smooth muscle-specific MHC is released into serum from the arterial wall following vascular damage as in dissecting aneurysm. Circulating smooth muscle MHC level was elevated 5-10 times above normal at 24 hours after aortic dissection as determined using a sensitive ELISA. We conclude from these results that smooth muscle MHC isoforms are important molecular markers for vascular pathology as well as for biochemical diagnosis of vascular injuries.
  • M Aikawa, H S Kim, M Kuro-o, I Manabe, M Watanabe, H Yamaguchi, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 748 578 - 85 0077-8923 1995/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • S Takewaki, M Kuro-o, Y Hiroi, T Yamazaki, T Noguchi, A Miyagishi, K Nakahara, M Aikawa, I Manabe, Y Yazaki
    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 27 (1) 729 - 42 0022-2828 1995/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The Na(+)-H+ antiporter is a unique transmembrane protein with multiple roles in cellular functions through intracellular alkalization. It participates in the regulation of intracellular pH, cell volume and intracellular signalling in response to various mitogenic stimuli. To clarify its role as a subcellular signal in cardiovascular remodeling like vascular hyperplasia or cardiac hypertrophy, we determined mRNA levels of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter isoform, NHE-1, in vascular smooth muscles and pressure-overloaded hearts in rabbits. The NHE-1 mRNA levels in rabbit aortas and hearts were developmentally regulated with high levels at embryonic and neonatal stages than in adults. In primary-cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC), the mRNA levels were increased during exponential growth, but decreased to initial levels at confluency. Growth of a mutant SMC line, C5, which is deficient in Na(+)-H+ antiporter activity, was markedly reduced in bicarbonate-free medium. However, when the activity was restored by transfecting cells with a full-length NHE-1 cDNA in an expression vector, the growth rate of C5 was accelerated again. After balloon injury to the vascular wall, the NHE-1 mRNA levels of the injured arteries were also increased, suggesting that Na(+)-H+ antiporter contributes to the network of the growth promoting systems in smooth muscle cells in vivo. Pressure-overload on the ventricle increased the NHE-1 mRNA levels in hearts approximately two-fold of sham-operated rabbits after 3 days and remained for at least two weeks (P < 0.05). We further demonstrated that 3-methylsulfonyl-4-piperidino-benzoyl guanidine mesylate (Hoe 694), a potent antagonist of Na(+)-H+ antiporter, partially inhibited stretch-induced activation of mitogen-activated kinase (MAP kinase) in the cultured cardiomyocytes. From these results, we conclude that activation of the Na(+)-H+ antiporter and its gene expression is involved in molecular mechanisms of both cardiac hypertrophy and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, indicating a potential target in developing new therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases.
  • M Kuro-o, K Hanaoka, Y Hiroi, T Noguchi, Y Fujimori, S Takewaki, M Hayasaka, H Katoh, A Miyagishi, R Nagai
    Circulation research 76 (1) 148 - 53 0009-7330 1995/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Essential hypertension is one of the most common diseases that exacerbate the risk of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular attacks. Although the etiology of essential hypertension remains unclear, recent investigations have revealed that an enhancement of Na(+)-proton (Na(+)-H+) exchange activity is a frequently observed ion transport abnormality in hypertensive patients and animal models. To test the hypothesis that increased Na(+)-H+ exchange causes hypertension, we produced transgenic mice overexpressing Na(+)-H+ exchanger and analyzed their Na+ metabolism and blood pressure. Urinary excretion of water and Na+ was significantly decreased in transgenic mice, and systolic blood pressure was elevated after salt loading. The impaired urinary excretion of Na+ suggested that the Na(+)-H+ exchanger overexpressed in the renal tubules increased reabsorption of Na+, which caused a blood pressure elevation by Na+ retention after excessive salt intake. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of Na(+)-H+ exchanger can be a genetic factor that interacts with excessive salt intake and causes salt-sensitive blood pressure elevation.
  • R Nagai, M Aikawa, M Kuroo, Y Yazaki
    Nihon Naika Gakkai zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine 83 (9) 1513 - 9 0021-5384 1994/09 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • R NAGAI, M AIKAWA, M KUROO, Y SAKOMURA, HS KIM, Y HIROI, MANABE, I, H NISHIMURA, M WATANABE, SHIOJIMA, I, T TANAKA, Y YAZAKI
    ADAPTED HEART 255 - 267 1994 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • M Aikawa, P N Sivam, M Kuro-o, K Kimura, K Nakahara, S Takewaki, M Ueda, H Yamaguchi, Y Yazaki, M Periasamy
    Circulation research 73 (6) 1000 - 12 0009-7330 1993/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Smooth muscle myosin heavy chains (MHCs) exist in multiple isoforms. Rabbit smooth muscles contain at least three types of MHC isoforms: SM1 (204 kD), SM2 (200 kD), and SMemb (200 kD). SM1 and SM2 are specific to smooth muscles, but SMemb is a nonmuscle-type MHC abundantly expressed in the embryonic aorta. We recently reported that these three MHC isoforms are differentially expressed in rabbit during normal vascular development and in experimental arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether expression of human smooth muscle MHC isoforms is regulated in developing arteries and in atherosclerotic lesions. To accomplish this, we have isolated and characterized three cDNA clones from human smooth muscle: SMHC94 (SM1), SMHC93 (SM2), and HSME6 (SMemb). The expression of SM2 mRNA in the fetal aorta was significantly lower as compared with SM1 mRNA, but the ratio of SM2 to SM1 mRNA was increased after birth. SMemb mRNA in the aorta was decreased after birth but appeared to be increased in the aged. To further examine the MHC expression at the histological level, we have developed three antibodies against human SM1, SM2, and SMemb using the isoform-specific sequences of the carboxyl terminal end. Immunohistologically, SM1 was constitutively positive from the fetal stage to adulthood in the apparently normal media of the aorta and coronary arteries, whereas SM2 was negative in fetal arteries of the early gestational stage. In human, unlike rabbit, aorta or coronary arteries, SMemb was detected even in the adult. However, smaller-sized arteries, like the vasa vasorum of the aorta or intramyocardial coronary arterioles, were negative for SMemb. Diffuse intimal thickening in the major coronary arteries was found to be composed of smooth muscles, reacting equally to three antibodies for MHC isoforms, but reactivities with anti-SM2 antibody were reduced with aging. With progression of atherosclerosis, intimal smooth muscles diminished the expression of not only SM2 but also SM1, whereas alpha-smooth muscle actin was well preserved. We conclude from these results that smooth muscle MHC isoforms are important molecular markers for studying human vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation as well as the cellular mechanisms of atherosclerosis.
  • Y Fujii, H Itoyanagi, Y Saegusa, M Kuro-o, Y Matsuda, Y Shiroko, M Eriguchi, K Hasumi
    Japanese journal of cancer research : Gann 84 (10) 1055 - 61 0910-5050 1993/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The objective of this study was to examine the identity and characteristics of a spontaneously occurring murine retroperitoneal tumor of BALB/c mouse origin that selectively metastasized to the liver. From the primary tumor, a permanent cell line, termed LMFS (liver metastasis from sarcoma) was established in vivo and in vitro. After a subcutaneous injection of more than 1 x 10(5) cells in the side back of mice, the LMFS cells proliferated at the inoculation site (100% take) and induced metastatic nodules spontaneously in the liver, but not in the lung. By the limiting dilution technique, a cloned cell line, LMFS-1, was established in vitro. The LMFS-1 cell line had similar morphological characteristics to the LMFS cells both in vitro and in vivo. The doubling time of the LMFS-1 cell line was 10 h in passage 60. The number of chromosomes ranged from 71 to 108 and 93% of metaphases showed near-tetraploidy. In microscopic examination, no specific arrangement of the LMFS tumor cells was seen; the LMFS cell had medium- to large-sized atypical nuclei and clear and large cytoplasm. Electronmicroscopy showed that the cytoplasm of the LMFS cell had a moderate amount of rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum but no desmosomes or microvilli. Immunohistochemically, the LMFS cells were positive for vimentin, but showed no reaction for keratin or cytokeratin. Therefore, the LMFS tumor was considered to be an undifferentiated sarcoma. The LMFS cell line should be a useful tool not only for studies of metastasis, but also for experiments on the therapy of hepatic tumors.
  • H S Kim, M Aikawa, K Kimura, M Kuro-o, K Nakahara, T Suzuki, H Katoh, E Okamoto, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Circulation 88 (4 Pt 1) 1804 - 10 0009-7322 1993/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    BACKGROUND: The closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) is one of the most striking cardiovascular events that occur at birth. It has been attributed to oxygenation and intrinsic prostaglandins. However, selective constriction of DA suggests the presence of highly specialized contractile mechanisms in DA. We previously reported that smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms, SM1 and SM2, are molecular markers for smooth muscle differentiation because of their unique expression pattern during vascular development. SM1 and SM2 are generated from a single gene through developmentally regulated alternative RNA splicing; SM1 is expressed in almost all stages of differentiation of the vascular smooth muscles, but SM2 is found only after birth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to study the expression of the different types of myosin heavy chain isoforms in DA of fetal and neonatal rabbits. Electron microscopic examinations were also carried out to demonstrate ultrastructural characteristics of ductus muscles. We found that SM2 is expressed before birth in the medial layer of DA, indicating advanced differentiation of smooth muscle cells in DA. The exact location of immunoreactivity for SM2 was in the smooth muscle cell of the medial layer of DA. Immunoreactivity for SM1, however, was not different for DA and adjacent great arteries. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated greater amounts of myofilaments in medial smooth muscles of DA than those of aorta. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that smooth muscles in DA are more differentiated than those in other arteries, which may be one of the cellular mechanisms responsible for the unique closure of DA at birth.
  • M Kuro-o, R Nagai, Y Yazaki, K Hanaoka, Y Nabeshima
    Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 51 (6) 1524 - 9 0047-1852 1993/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Recent investigations have raised a possibility that abnormal ion transportation through cell membranes may be involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. In order to test the hypothesis that increased activity of Na+/H+ antiporter may cause hypertension, we developed transgenic mice overexpressing the Na+/H+ antiporter. We isolated a full-length cDNA clone encoding the rabbit Na+/H+ antiporter and constructed the transgene by ligating it with the human elongation factor 1 alpha promoter. We obtained three transgenic strains which express the transgene in various tissues such as kidney, heart and aorta. These transgenic mice may be useful for the analysis of pathogenesis of essential hypertension.
  • S Kubota, M Kuro-o, S Mizuno, S Kohno
    Chromosoma 102 (3) 163 - 73 0009-5915 1993/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The various species of Japanese hagfish, namely, Eptatretus okinoseanus (types A and B), Eptatretus burgeri and Myxine garmani, are known to eliminate a fraction of their chromosomes during early embryogenesis. High molecular weight DNA from germ line cells and somatic cells of these hagfish species was isolated and digested with different restriction enzymes. The DNA fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Digestion with BamHI and DraI generated two weak bands and one weak band, respectively, that were estimated to be about 90, and 180 bp and about 90 bp long and were limited to the germ line DNA in both types of E. okinoseanus. DNA filter hybridization experiments showed that the two BamHI fragments and the one DraI fragment were present almost exclusively in the germ line DNA of E. okinoseanus. Thus, these DNA fragments appear to be eliminated during embryogenesis. Moreover, evidence was obtained that these fragments are highly and tandemly repeated. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the BamHI fragments are mainly composed of a family of closely related sequences that are 95 bp long (EEEo1, for Eliminated Element of E. okinoseanus 1), and the DraI fragment is composed of another family of closely related sequences that are 85 bp long (EEEo2). The two DNA families account for about 19% of the total eliminated DNA in E. okinoseanus type A. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the two families of DNA are located on several C-band-positive, small chromosomes that are limited to germ cells in both types of E. okinoseanus.
  • E Okamoto, K Imataka, J Fujii, M Kuro-o, K Nakahara, H Nishimura, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 185 (1) 459 - 64 0006-291X 1992/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Rabbit smooth muscles contain at least three types of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms; SM1, SM2 and SMemb (NMHC-B), the expression of which is developmentally regulated. We have recently reported that smooth muscles with the embryonic phenotype accumulate in the neointimas produced by endothelial denudation or high-cholesterol feeding. In this study, we examined MHC isoform expression in the neointimas and the media of poststenotic dilatation of the rabbit carotid artery, and determined the phenotype of the smooth muscle cell in the dilated segment. We report here that neointimal cells in the dilated segment are smooth muscle cells with the embryonic phenotype as previously reported in our ballooning-injury study. The medial smooth muscles, however, are composed of heterogeneous population of smooth muscles which differ in stage of differentiation as determined by the MHC isoform expression. These results indicate that MHC isoforms are useful molecular markers to identify abnormally proliferating smooth muscles in diseased arteries and to understand the process of atherogenesis occurring following vascular injury.
  • K Nakahara, H Nishimura, M Kuro-o, S Takewaki, M Iwase, A Ohkubo, Y Yazaki, R Nagai
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 184 (2) 811 - 8 0006-291X 1992/04 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    PDGF-like peptides secreted from smooth muscles have been suggested to be responsible for the smooth muscle growth. In order to elucidate the nature of PDGF-like molecules expressed in vascular smooth muscles, we have isolated and characterized cDNA clones for PDGF-A chain from a rabbit embryonic aorta cDNA library. One of the cDNA clones was found to encode a novel PDGF-A chain, named PDGF-A3 in this report. PDGF-A3 arises from a single PDGF-A chain gene by alternative RNA splicing and differs from the sequences of previously reported endothelial- or the glioma-type transcripts by a 110 bp insertion. Expression of PDGF-A3 mRNA was selectively induced by Angiotensin II in the smooth muscle cell in vitro. Total PDGF-A mRNA is most enriched in embryonic aortas, but its expression is down-regulated with vascular development. PDGF-A mRNA is markedly increased in primary-cultured smooth muscle cells during the log-phase growth. Our results suggest that autocrine production of PDGF-A chains from the smooth muscle cell may play a role in early vascular development and in Angiotensin II-induced smooth muscle cell proliferation.
  • R NAGAI, M KUROO, Y YAZAKI, A OHKUBO
    PROGRESS IN CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 991 437 - 440 0531-5131 1992 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • S Kubota, Y Nakai, M Kuro-o, S Kohno
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 60 (3-4) 224 - 8 0301-0171 1992 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Cytogenetic studies were performed on two types of Japanese hagfish (Eptatretus okinoseanus) that eliminate about 45% (type A) and 55% (type B) of their DNA from presumptive somatic cells during the differentiation of somatic cells. The observations revealed inter- and intraindividual variations in the number of chromosomes in germ cells of both types of hagfishes. Although the modal number of chromosomes in the germ cells was 54 in both types, the percentage of cells with the modal number was rather low (38.6% [51/132] in five specimens of type A and 22.7% [25/110] in eight specimens of type B). In addition, one of seven type B specimens clearly had a modal number of 62 chromosomes. Another specimen of type B had a bimodal distribution of chromosome numbers, with peaks of 54 and 59 chromosomes. The observation of interindividual variations was supported by data on the amount of DNA in germ cells of type B specimens. However, these variations were rarely observed in somatic cells. These results suggest that supernumerary (B) chromosomes are maintained in germ cells and are eliminated together with some other chromosomes and/or chromatin from somatic cells.
  • M Kuro-o, R Nagai, K Nakahara, H Katoh, R C Tsai, H Tsuchimochi, Y Yazaki, A Ohkubo, F Takaku
    The Journal of biological chemistry 266 (6) 3768 - 73 0021-9258 1991/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Adult rabbit smooth muscles contain two types of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, SM1 and SM2 which are generated through alternative RNA splicing from a single gene (Nagai, R., Kuro-o, M., Babij, P. & Periasamy, M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 9734-9737). We previously reported that the expression of SM1 and SM2 during vascular development is differentially regulated at the level of RNA splicing, whereby SM1 is constitutively expressed from early development but SM2 appear after birth (Kuro-o, M., Nagai, R., Tsuchimochi, H., Katoh, H., Yazaki, Y., Ohkubo, A. & Takaku, F. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 18272-18275). We also demonstrated that embryonic vascular smooth muscles contain a third type of MHC isoform, referred to as SMemb in this report, which comigrates on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with SM2. In the present study we have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone (FSMHC34) for SMemb. FSMHC34 encodes the light meromyosin region including the carboxyl terminus and showed 70% amino acid sequence identity with SM1 or SM2. SMemb is a nonmuscle-type MHC and identical with brain MHC, but clearly distinct from 196-kDa nonmuscle MHC in cultured smooth muscle cells. The expression of SMemb was predominant in embryonic and perinatal aortas, but down-regulated with vascular development. Interestingly SMemb was reexpressed in proliferating smooth muscle cells of arteriosclerotic neointimas. These results suggest that smooth muscle proliferation is coupled to the expression of SMemb and that dedifferentiation of smooth muscles toward the embryonic phenotype is involved in the mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis.
  • Chikako Ikebe, M. Kuro-O, T. Yamamoto, S. Kohno
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 54 (3-4) 169 - 171 1424-859X 1990 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    C- and R-banding analyses were performed on chromosomes of Salamandrella keyserlingii, in which 20 of 31 chromosome pairs could be identified. Banding patterns were compared between S. keyserlingii and specimens of Hynobius species of the family Hynobiidae. Between S. keyserlingii and six Hynobius species (2n = 56). there were four homoeologous and two partially homoeologous chromosome pairs. Between S. keyserlingii and H. relardaius (2n = 40). there were two homoeologous and two partially homoeologous chromosome pairs. © 1990 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • Y. Izumisawa, C. Ikebe, M. Kuro-o, S. Kohno
    Experientia 46 (1) 104 - 106 0014-4754 1990/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Chromosomal characteristics of the salamander species Hynobius abei, from Ohimya (Kyoto) were revealed by the techniques of R-and C-banding. The karyotype of H. abei was characterized by the shortness of an R-negative (C-positive) band in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 2 and a band encompassing the whole short arm of chromosome 10. These two bands in H. abei were the shortest among those of the various Hynobius species that have been examined. Otherwise no differences could be detected between H. abei and seven other pond-type species of Hynobius (2n=56) in terms of the banding patterns of 18 specifically identifiable pairs of their chromosomes. © 1990 Birkhäuser Verlag.
  • C Ikebe, M Kuro-o, T Yamamoto, S Kohno
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 54 (3-4) 169 - 71 0301-0171 1990 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    C- and R-banding analyses were performed on chromosomes of Salamandrella keyserlingii, in which 20 of 31 chromosome pairs could be identified. Banding patterns were compared between S. keyserlingii and specimens of Hynobius species of the family Hynobiidae. Between S. keyserlingii and six Hynobius species (2n = 56), there were four homoelogous and two partially homoeologous chromosome pairs. Between S. keyserlingii and H. retardatus (2n = 40), there were two homoeologous and two partially homoeologous chromosome pairs.
  • M Kuro-o, R Nagai, H Tsuchimochi, H Katoh, Y Yazaki, A Ohkubo, F Takaku
    The Journal of biological chemistry 264 (31) 18272 - 5 0021-9258 1989/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Two types of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, SM1 and SM2, were recently identified to have different carboxyl termini (Nagai, R., Kuro-o, M., Babij, P., and Periasamy, M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 9734-9737). SM1 and SM2 are considered to be generated from a single gene through alternative RNA splicing. In this study we investigated expression of vascular MHC isoforms during development in rabbits at the mRNA, protein, and histological levels. In adults, all smooth muscle cells reacted with both anti-SM1 and anti-SM2 antibodies on immunofluorescence, suggesting the coexpression of SM1 and SM2 in a single cell. In fetal and perinatal rabbits, however, only anti-SM1 antibody consistently reacted with smooth muscles. Reactivity with anti-SM2 antibody was negative in the fetal and neonatal blood vessels and gradually increased during 30 days after birth. These developmental changes in SM1 and SM2 expression at the histological level coincided with mRNA expression of each MHC isoform as determined by S1 nuclease mapping, indicating that expression of SM1 and SM2 is controlled at the level of RNA splicing. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of myosin from fetal and perinatal aortas revealed the presence of large amount of SM2. Interestingly, fetal SM2 did not cross-react with our anti-SM2 antibody on immunoblotting. We conclude that expression of SM1 and SM2 are differentially regulated during development and that a third type of MHC isoform may exist in embryonic and perinatal vascular smooth muscles.
  • R Nagai, M Kuro-o, P Babij, M Periasamy
    The Journal of biological chemistry 264 (17) 9734 - 7 0021-9258 1989/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We previously reported the characterization of a rabbit uterus cDNA clone (SMHC29) which encoded part of the light meromyosin of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Nagai, R., Larson, D.M., and Periasamy, M. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 85, 1047-1051). We have now characterized a second cDNA clone (SMHC40) which also encodes part of the light meromyosin but differs from SMHC29 in the following respects. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrates that the two myosin heavy chain mRNAs are identical over 1424 nucleotides but differ in part of the 3'-carboxyl coding region and a portion of the 3'-nontranslated sequence. Specifically, SMHC40 cDNA encodes a unique stretch of 43 amino acids at the carboxyl terminus, whereas SMHC29 cDNA contains a shorter carboxyl terminus of 9 unique amino acids which is the result of a 39-nucleotide insertion. Recent peptide mapping of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain identified two isotypes with differences in the light meromyosin fragment that were designated as SM1 (204 kDa) and SM2 (200 kDa) type myosin (Eddinger, T. J., and Murphy, R.A. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 3807-3811). In this study we present direct evidence that SMHC40 and SMHC29 mRNA encode the two smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms, SM1 and SM2, respectively, by immunoblot analysis using antibodies against specific carboxyl terminus sequences deduced from SMHC40 and SMHC29 cDNA clones.
  • M Kuro-o, Y Okai, S Matsushita, K Kuramoto
    Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics 25 (6) 581 - 5 0300-9173 1988/11 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • K Nomoto, I Komuro, M Kuro-o, H Tsuchimochi, F Takaku, K Machii, Y Yazaki
    Circulation research 62 (6) 1088 - 92 0009-7330 1988/06 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To investigate the response of myosin isozyme transition in specialized myocardium to cardiac overload, we examined immunohistochemically the distribution of myosin isozymes in sinus node cells of overloaded canine atria, using the monoclonal antibodies CMA19 and HMC14, which are specific for atrial myosin heavy chain (alpha-HC) and ventricular myosin heavy chain (beta-HC), respectively. Overloading in canine right atria was induced by artificial tricuspid valve regurgitation and pulmonary stenosis. Right atrial mean pressure rose to 15-20 mm Hg (n = 4) 2 months after surgery. In the working myocardium, cardiac overload caused redistribution of myosin isozymes, alpha-HC to beta-HC. Compared with the normal right atria, fewer myocytes were labeled with CMA19, but more were labeled with HMC14. However, the reactivity of sinus node cells with CMA19 and HMC14 was not changed between normal and overloaded right atria, indicating no redistribution of myosin heavy chain isozymes, alpha-HC to beta-HC. These results suggest that isozymes in myosin heavy chains in the specialized myocardium are protected from overload effects by their firm cytoskeletal framework or other mechanisms.
  • S MATSUSHITA, M KUROO, T TAKAGI, E HOU, K KURAMOTO
    JAPANESE CIRCULATION JOURNAL-ENGLISH EDITION 52 (5) 442 - 448 0047-1828 1988/05 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • Y Seko, T Tomiya, M Kuro-o, K Takano, Y Nojima, C Terai, A Yamada, T Shimizu, K Inoue, F Takaku
    Nihon Naika Gakkai zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine 77 (3) 370 - 6 0021-5384 1988/03 [Refereed][Not invited]
  • H Tsuchimochi, M Kuro-o, H Koyama, M Kurabayashi, M Sugi, F Takaku, S Furuta, Y Yazaki
    The Journal of clinical investigation 81 (1) 110 - 8 0021-9738 1988/01 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To investigate the existence of heterogeneity of beta-type myosin isozymes (HC beta) in human hearts, immunohistochemical studies using monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) raised against human ventricular myosin heavy chains were performed. Two types of MoAbs recognized some muscle fibers in the atrium, whereas both reacted with all ventricular muscle fibers. Since atrial muscle fibers reactive with each MoAb were found to be clearly different, the existence of two immunologically distinct HC beta (beta 1, and beta 2) was suggested in the atrium. By using affinity chromatography, two molecular variants of HC beta were isolated from the bovine atrium, and differences in the primary structure of beta 1 and beta 2 were confirmed by analysis of peptides produced by chymotryptic digestion. In pressure-overloaded human atria, myofibers containing beta 1 and/or beta 2 increased in accordance with decrement of myofibers containing alpha-type myosin isozyme (P less than 0.01). But they differed in expression during the developmental stage, since beta 2 did not exist in the early embryonic bovine heart, but beta 1 did. Thus, there are two distinct HC beta whose expression is regulated by at least two factors: pressure overload and developmental stage.
  • Masaki Kuro-o, Chikako Ikebe, Sei-ichi Kohno
    Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B 63 (1) 9 - 12 1349-2896 1987 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    With the R-banding (RBA) technique13) improved for the genus < i> Hynobius< /i> (RBG), 11) R-banding patterns in < i> Hynobius lichenatus< /i> and < i> H< /i> . < i> tokyoensis< /i> were obtained. The former species was collected in Inawashiro (Fukushima) and Shiobara (Tochigi), and the latter was collected in Isumi (Chiba) and Utsunomiya (Tochigi) in Japan. According to the R-banding patterns, three chromosome variations in < i> H. lichenatus< /i> and one chromosome variation in < i> H. tokyoensis< /i> were detected. It is considered that these variations show the inter-populational relationships in each species. © 1987, The Japan Academy. All rights reserved.
  • H Tsuchimochi, M Kuro-o, F Takaku, K Yoshida, M Kawana, S Kimata, Y Yazaki
    Japanese circulation journal 50 (10) 1044 - 52 0047-1828 1986/10 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    Cardiac muscles contain at least two isozymes--referred to as alpha(HC alpha) and beta(HC beta)--of the myosin heavy chain. The proportional ratio of these isozymes varies depending upon the developmental stage and the physiological and/or the hormonal milieu of the cell. Using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) specific for human cardiac HC alpha and HC beta, we have examined the expression of these isozymes in fetal through adult cardiac tissues and investigated whether isozymic redistribution occurs in pressure overloaded human ventricles. We found that although HC alpha was expressed in the atrium from the early embryonic stage, in embryonic ventricular myofibers, only HC beta was expressed without expression of HC alpha, but some myofibers replace HC beta by HC alpha after birth, and these HC alpha containing ventricular myofibers were found to be decreased by pressure overload, which suggested that isozymic redistribution from HC alpha to HC beta also occurred in the ventricles, as well as the atrium. In addition, we also found two subtypes of HC beta (beta 1, beta 2) in the human heart. In the ventricle, both beta 1 and beta 2 was present in all myofibers; in contrast, some myofibers contained beta 1 or beta 2 or both with or without expression of HC alpha in the atrium. beta 1 and beta 2 were distinctive in their expression during the developmental stage, since beta 1 was present in the embryonic heart from the early developmental stage, whereas beta 2 was not present in the early embryonic heart, but began to be expressed in the late embryonic stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • M Kuro-o, H Tsuchimochi, S Ueda, F Takaku, Y Yazaki
    The Journal of clinical investigation 77 (2) 340 - 7 0021-9738 1986/02 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    To determine the presence and distribution of cardiac myosin isozymes in the human conduction system, we performed an immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies CMA19 and HMC14, which are specific for myosin heavy chains of human atrial type (alpha-type) and ventricular type (beta-type), respectively. Serial frozen sections of human hearts were obtained from autopsy samples and examined by indirect immunofluorescence. Alpha-type was found in all myofibers of sinus node and atrio-ventricular node, and in 55.2 +/- 10.2% (mean +/- SD, n = 5) of the myofibers of ventricular conduction tissue, which consists of the bundle of His, bundle branches, and the Purkinje network. In contrast, beta-type was found in all myofibers of the atrio-ventricular node and ventricular conduction tissue, whereas almost all myofibers of the sinus node were unlabeled by HMC14. Although the number of ventricular myofibers labeled by CMA19 was small, the labeled myofibers were more numerous in the subepicardial region than in the subendocardial region. These findings show that the gene coding for alpha-type is expressed predominantly in specialized myocardium compared with the adjacent ordinary working myocardium.
  • M Kuro-o, C Ikebe, S Kohno
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 43 (1-2) 14 - 8 0301-0171 1986 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    The R-banding technique of Dutrillaux et al. (1973) was modified in order to analyze the chromosomes of salamanders in the genus Hynobius. Embryonic cells of Hynobius nigrescens Stejneger from Nakakubiki County, Niigata Prefecture, and Hakui County, Ishikawa Prefecture, were cultured in medium containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Banded metaphases were obtained by the FPG (fluorescent-plus-Giemsa) technique (Perry and Wolff, 1974), with slight modifications. With this modified R-banding technique, multiple, clear DNA replication bands were obtained on the chromosomes, and 18 of 28 chromosome pairs could be identified easily by their replication patterns in embryos collected from Nakakubiki County. A distinct heteromorphism in banding pattern was detected on the long arm of chromosome 9 in these embryos, but the frequency of this variant was too low for chromosome 9 to be a sex chromosome. Chromosomes 1-14, except for 6, 12 (for which the data were not satisfactory), and 9 (the variant type from Nakakubiki County), had the same replication patterns in embryos obtained from Nakakubiki and Hakui Counties.
  • Y Yazaki, H Tsuchimochi, M Kuro-o, M Kurabayashi, M Isobe, S Ueda, R Nagai, F Takaku
    European heart journal 5 Suppl F 103 - 10 0195-668X 1984/12 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    We have prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for either atrial or ventricular myosin and defined the isomyosin composition of myocardium in normal and overloaded human hearts. In the atrial myocardium, normal isozymic pattern was V1 dominant which converted to being V3 dominant in an overloaded condition. In contrast, normal isomyosin pattern of the ventricular myocardium was exclusively V3 dominant, and only a small change in the proportion of isomyosin was observed in an overloaded condition. From this, we conclude that isozymic changes in cardiac myosin could occur in the human heart to meet increased work induced by cardiac overload. However, the physiological importance of these isomyosin redistributions in human myocardium seems to be much greater in the atrium than in the ventricle, since larger amounts of V1 isomyosin which could be transformed to V3 isomyosin were present in the atrial myocardium.
  • H Tsuchimochi, M Sugi, M Kuro-o, S Ueda, F Takaku, S Furuta, T Shirai, Y Yazaki
    The Journal of clinical investigation 74 (2) 662 - 5 0021-9738 1984/08 [Refereed][Not invited]
     
    An immunohistochemical study using monoclonal antibodies specific for the heavy chains of either human atrial (HC alpha) or ventricular (HC beta) myosin was performed to clarify the distribution of each isozyme in normal as well as pressure-overloaded human hearts. In normal human ventricles, all muscle fibers were stained by a monoclonal antibody (HMC14) specific for HC beta, whereas a small number of fibers reacted with a monoclonal antibody (CMA19) specific for HC alpha. In contrast, in normal human atria, almost all muscle fibers were stained by CMA19, and a relatively larger number of muscle fibers also reacted with HMC14. Furthermore, in pressure-overloaded atria, muscle fibers reactive with HMC14 were strikingly increased while those reactive with CMA19 showed a corresponding decrease. The extent of this isozymic redistribution was in good correlation with atrial pressure. These results not only confirmed the existence of isoforms of myosin heavy chain in human hearts, but also demonstrated that redistribution of iso-myosins could occur as an adaptation to pressure overload.

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